โ–ธโ–ธ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง Magnesium
  • ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ณ ้Ž‚
  • ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฑ Magnesium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท Magnésium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช Magnesium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฑ ืžื’ื ื–ื™ื•ื
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡น Magnesio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ต ใƒžใ‚ฐใƒใ‚ทใ‚ฆใƒ 
  • ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡น Magnésio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡บ ะœะฐะณะฝะธะน
  • ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Magnesio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ช Magnesium

Magnesium: properties of free atoms

Magnesium atoms have 12 electrons and the shell structure is  2.8.2.

The ground state electron configuration of ground state gaseous neutral magnesium is  [Ne].3s2 and the term symbol is  1S0.

Kossel shell structure of magnesium
Schematic electronic configuration of magnesium.
Kossel shell structure of magnesium
The Kossel shell structure of magnesium.

Atomic spectrum

 

A representation of the atomic spectrum of magnesium.

Ionisation Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of magnesium is 0 kJ mol‑1. The ionisation energies of magnesium are given below.

Ionisation energies of magnesium
Ionisation energy number Enthalpy / kJ mol‑1
1st737.75
2nd1450.68
3rd7732.68
4th10542.51
5th13636
6th18020
7th21711
8th25658
9th31646
10th35457
11th169988
12th189368 (calculated)
Ionisation energies of magnesium
Ionisation energies of magnesium.

Effective Nuclear Charges

The following are "Clementi-Raimondi" effective nuclear charges, Zeff. Follow the hyperlinks for more details and for graphs in various formats.

Effective nuclear charges for magnesium
1s11.6089  
2s7.39 2p7.83  
3s3.31 3p(no data) 3d(no data)  
4s(no data) 4p(no data) 4d(no data) 4f(no data)
5s(no data) 5p(no data) 5d(no data)  
6s(no data) 6p(no data)  
7s   

References

These effective nuclear charges, Zeff, are adapted from the following references:

  1. E. Clementi and D.L.Raimondi, J. Chem. Phys. 1963, 38, 2686.
  2. E. Clementi, D.L.Raimondi, and W.P. Reinhardt, J. Chem. Phys. 1967, 47, 1300.

Electron binding energies

Electron binding energies for magnesium. All values of electron binding energies are given in eV. The binding energies are quoted relative to the vacuum level for rare gases and H2, N2, O2, F2, and Cl2 molecules; relative to the Fermi level for metals; and relative to the top of the valence band for semiconductors.
Label Orbital eV [literature reference]
K 1s1303 [3]
L I2s88.6 [2]
L II2p1/249.6 [3]
L III2p3/249.2 [2]

Notes

I am grateful to Gwyn Williams (Jefferson Laboratory, Virginia, USA) who provided the electron binding energy data. The data are adapted from references 1-3. They are tabulated elsewhere on the WWW (reference 4) and in paper form (reference 5).

References

  1. J. A. Bearden and A. F. Burr, "Reevaluation of X-Ray Atomic Energy Levels," Rev. Mod. Phys., 1967, 39, 125.
  2. M. Cardona and L. Ley, Eds., Photoemission in Solids I: General Principles (Springer-Verlag, Berlin) with additional corrections, 1978.
  3. Gwyn Williams WWW table of values
  4. D.R. Lide, (Ed.) in Chemical Rubber Company handbook of chemistry and physics, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 81st edition, 2000.
  5. J. C. Fuggle and N. Mårtensson, "Core-Level Binding Energies in Metals," J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 1980, 21, 275.