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Curium: properties of free atoms

Curium atoms have 96 electrons and the shell structure is  2.8.18.32.25.9.2.

The ground state electron configuration of ground state gaseous neutral curium is  [Rn].5f7.6d1.7s2 and the term symbol is  9D2.

Kossel shell structure of curium
Schematic electronic configuration of curium.
Kossel shell structure of curium
The Kossel shell structure of curium.

Atomic spectrum

 

A representation of the atomic spectrum of curium.

Ionisation Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of curium is (no data) kJ mol‑1. The ionisation energies of curium are given below.

Ionisation energies of curium
Ionisation energy number Enthalpy / kJ mol‑1
1st578.08
2nd1200
3rd1940
4th3640
5th4920
6th6670
7th9360
8th10800
9th12400
10th13900
11th16100
12th18300 (calculated)
13th20600
14th22700
15th24400
16th26200
17th30000
18th32000
19th44400
20th47200
21st50000
Ionisation energies of curium
Ionisation energies of curium.

Effective Nuclear Charges

The following are "Clementi-Raimondi" effective nuclear charges, Zeff. Follow the hyperlinks for more details and for graphs in various formats.

Effective nuclear charges for curium
1s(no data)  
2s(no data) 2p(no data)  
3s(no data) 3p(no data) 3d(no data)  
4s(no data) 4p(no data) 4d(no data) 4f(no data)
5s(no data) 5p(no data) 5d(no data)  
6s(no data) 6p(no data)  
7s   

References

These effective nuclear charges, Zeff, are adapted from the following references:

  1. E. Clementi and D.L.Raimondi, J. Chem. Phys. 1963, 38, 2686.
  2. E. Clementi, D.L.Raimondi, and W.P. Reinhardt, J. Chem. Phys. 1967, 47, 1300.

Electron binding energies

Electron binding energies for curium. All values of electron binding energies are given in eV. The binding energies are quoted relative to the vacuum level for rare gases and H2, N2, O2, F2, and Cl2 molecules; relative to the Fermi level for metals; and relative to the top of the valence band for semiconductors.
Label Orbital eV [literature reference]

Notes

I am grateful to Gwyn Williams (Jefferson Laboratory, Virginia, USA) who provided the electron binding energy data. The data are adapted from references 1-3. They are tabulated elsewhere on the WWW (reference 4) and in paper form (reference 5).

References

  1. J. A. Bearden and A. F. Burr, "Reevaluation of X-Ray Atomic Energy Levels," Rev. Mod. Phys., 1967, 39, 125.
  2. M. Cardona and L. Ley, Eds., Photoemission in Solids I: General Principles (Springer-Verlag, Berlin) with additional corrections, 1978.
  3. Gwyn Williams WWW table of values
  4. D.R. Lide, (Ed.) in Chemical Rubber Company handbook of chemistry and physics, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 81st edition, 2000.
  5. J. C. Fuggle and N. Mårtensson, "Core-Level Binding Energies in Metals," J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 1980, 21, 275.