โ–ธโ–ธ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง Platinum
  • ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ณ ้‰‘
  • ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฑ Platina
  • ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท Platine
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช Platin
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฑ ืคืœื˜ื™ื ื”
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡น Platino
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ต ็™ฝ้‡‘
  • ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡น Platina
  • ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡บ ะŸะปะฐั‚ะธะฝะฐ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Platino
  • ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ช Platina

Platinum: properties of free atoms

Platinum atoms have 78 electrons and the shell structure is  2.8.18.32.17.1.

The ground state electron configuration of ground state gaseous neutral platinum is  [Xe].4f14.5d9.6s1 and the term symbol is  3D3.

Kossel shell structure of platinum
Schematic electronic configuration of platinum.
Kossel shell structure of platinum
The Kossel shell structure of platinum.

Atomic spectrum

 

A representation of the atomic spectrum of platinum.

Ionisation Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of platinum is 205.3 kJ mol‑1. The ionisation energies of platinum are given below.

Ionisation energies of platinum
Ionisation energy number Enthalpy / kJ mol‑1
1st864.40
2nd1791
3rd2800
4th4150
5th5400
6th7240
7th8780
8th10500
9th12200
10th14000
11th21300
12th23600 (calculated)
13th26000
14th28300
15th32000
16th34500
17th37800
18th42900
19th46200
20th48900
21st53100
Ionisation energies of platinum
Ionisation energies of platinum.

Effective Nuclear Charges

The following are "Clementi-Raimondi" effective nuclear charges, Zeff. Follow the hyperlinks for more details and for graphs in various formats.

Effective nuclear charges for platinum
1s76.49  
2s57.63 2p73.53  
3s54.98 3p55.89 3d64.50  
4s43.64 4p42.73 4d40.63 4f39.51
5s26.59 5p24.42 5d19.41  
6s10.75 6p(no data)  
7s   

References

These effective nuclear charges, Zeff, are adapted from the following references:

  1. E. Clementi and D.L.Raimondi, J. Chem. Phys. 1963, 38, 2686.
  2. E. Clementi, D.L.Raimondi, and W.P. Reinhardt, J. Chem. Phys. 1967, 47, 1300.

Electron binding energies

Electron binding energies for platinum. All values of electron binding energies are given in eV. The binding energies are quoted relative to the vacuum level for rare gases and H2, N2, O2, F2, and Cl2 molecules; relative to the Fermi level for metals; and relative to the top of the valence band for semiconductors.
Label Orbital eV [literature reference]
K 1s78395 [1]
L I2s13880 [1]
L II2p1/213273 [1]
L III2p3/211564 [1]
M I3s3296 [1]
M II3p1/23027 [1]
M III3p3/22645 [1]
M IV3d3/22202 [1]
M V3d5/22122 [1]
N I4s725.4 [3]
N II4p1/2609.1 [3]
N III4p3/2519.4 [3]
N IV4d3/2331.6 [3]
N V4d5/2314.6 [3]
N VI4f5/274.5 [3]
N VII4f7/271.2 [3]
O I5s101.7 [2, values derived from reference 1]
O II5p1/265.3 [2, values derived from reference 1]
O III5p3/251.7 [3]

Notes

I am grateful to Gwyn Williams (Jefferson Laboratory, Virginia, USA) who provided the electron binding energy data. The data are adapted from references 1-3. They are tabulated elsewhere on the WWW (reference 4) and in paper form (reference 5).

References

  1. J. A. Bearden and A. F. Burr, "Reevaluation of X-Ray Atomic Energy Levels," Rev. Mod. Phys., 1967, 39, 125.
  2. M. Cardona and L. Ley, Eds., Photoemission in Solids I: General Principles (Springer-Verlag, Berlin) with additional corrections, 1978.
  3. Gwyn Williams WWW table of values
  4. D.R. Lide, (Ed.) in Chemical Rubber Company handbook of chemistry and physics, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 81st edition, 2000.
  5. J. C. Fuggle and N. Mårtensson, "Core-Level Binding Energies in Metals," J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 1980, 21, 275.