โ–ธโ–ธ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง Sulfur
  • ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ณ ็กซ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฑ Zwavel
  • ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท Soufre
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช Schwefel
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฑ ื’ื•ืคืจื™ืช
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡น Solfo
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ต ็กซ้ป„
  • ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡น Enxofre
  • ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡บ ะกะตั€ะฐ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Azufre
  • ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ช Svavel

Sulfur: properties of free atoms

Sulfur atoms have 16 electrons and the shell structure is  2.8.6.

The ground state electron configuration of ground state gaseous neutral sulfur is  [Ne].3s2.3p4 and the term symbol is  3P2.

Kossel shell structure of sulfur
Schematic electronic configuration of sulfur.
Kossel shell structure of sulfur
The Kossel shell structure of sulfur.

Atomic spectrum

 

A representation of the atomic spectrum of sulfur.

Ionisation Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of sulfur is 200 kJ mol‑1. The ionisation energies of sulfur are given below.

Ionisation energies of sulfur
Ionisation energy number Enthalpy / kJ mol‑1
1st999.59
2nd2251.76
3rd3363.48
4th4556.23
5th7004.30
6th8495.81
7th27107.9
8th31724
9th36649
10th43196
11th48682
12th54457 (inferred)
13th62905
14th68215
15th311047
16th337138
Ionisation energies of sulfur
Ionisation energies of sulfur.

Effective Nuclear Charges

The following are "Clementi-Raimondi" effective nuclear charges, Zeff. Follow the hyperlinks for more details and for graphs in various formats.

Effective nuclear charges for sulfur
1s15.5409  
2s10.63 2p11.98  
3s6.37 3p5.48 3d(no data)  
4s(no data) 4p(no data) 4d(no data) 4f(no data)
5s(no data) 5p(no data) 5d(no data)  
6s(no data) 6p(no data)  
7s   

References

These effective nuclear charges, Zeff, are adapted from the following references:

  1. E. Clementi and D.L.Raimondi, J. Chem. Phys. 1963, 38, 2686.
  2. E. Clementi, D.L.Raimondi, and W.P. Reinhardt, J. Chem. Phys. 1967, 47, 1300.

Electron binding energies

Electron binding energies for sulfur. All values of electron binding energies are given in eV. The binding energies are quoted relative to the vacuum level for rare gases and H2, N2, O2, F2, and Cl2 molecules; relative to the Fermi level for metals; and relative to the top of the valence band for semiconductors.
Label Orbital eV [literature reference]
K 1s2472 [1]
L I2s230.9 [1]
L II2p1/2163.6 [2]
L III2p3/2162.5 [2]

Notes

I am grateful to Gwyn Williams (Jefferson Laboratory, Virginia, USA) who provided the electron binding energy data. The data are adapted from references 1-3. They are tabulated elsewhere on the WWW (reference 4) and in paper form (reference 5).

References

  1. J. A. Bearden and A. F. Burr, "Reevaluation of X-Ray Atomic Energy Levels," Rev. Mod. Phys., 1967, 39, 125.
  2. M. Cardona and L. Ley, Eds., Photoemission in Solids I: General Principles (Springer-Verlag, Berlin) with additional corrections, 1978.
  3. Gwyn Williams WWW table of values
  4. D.R. Lide, (Ed.) in Chemical Rubber Company handbook of chemistry and physics, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 81st edition, 2000.
  5. J. C. Fuggle and N. Mårtensson, "Core-Level Binding Energies in Metals," J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 1980, 21, 275.