โ–ธโ–ธ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง Bromine
  • ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ณ ๆบด
  • ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฑ Broom
  • ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท Brome
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช Brom
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฑ ื‘ืจื•ื
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡น Bromo
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ต ่‡ญ็ด 
  • ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡น Bromo
  • ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡บ ะ‘ั€ะพะผ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Bromo
  • ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ช Brom

Bromine: properties of free atoms

Bromine atoms have 35 electrons and the shell structure is  2.8.18.7.

The ground state electron configuration of ground state gaseous neutral bromine is  [Ar].3d10.4s2.4p5 and the term symbol is  2P3/2.

Kossel shell structure of bromine
Schematic electronic configuration of bromine.
Kossel shell structure of bromine
The Kossel shell structure of bromine.

Atomic spectrum

 

A representation of the atomic spectrum of bromine.

Ionisation Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of bromine is 324.6 kJ mol‑1. The ionisation energies of bromine are given below.

Ionisation energies of bromine
Ionisation energy number Enthalpy / kJ mol‑1
1st1139.86
2nd2083.2
3rd3364.5
4th4610.3
5th5750.0
6th8431.9
7th9941
8th18580
9th21610
10th25180
11th29040
12th32610 (calculated)
13th37920
14th42070
15th46410
16th51140
17th55670
18th69110
19th73430
20th78130
21st83940
Ionisation energies of bromine
Ionisation energies of bromine.

Effective Nuclear Charges

The following are "Clementi-Raimondi" effective nuclear charges, Zeff. Follow the hyperlinks for more details and for graphs in various formats.

Effective nuclear charges for bromine
1s34.2471  
2s25.64 2p31.06  
3s20.22 3p19.57 3d19.56  
4s10.55 4p9.03 4d(no data) 4f(no data)
5s(no data) 5p(no data) 5d(no data)  
6s(no data) 6p(no data)  
7s   

References

These effective nuclear charges, Zeff, are adapted from the following references:

  1. E. Clementi and D.L.Raimondi, J. Chem. Phys. 1963, 38, 2686.
  2. E. Clementi, D.L.Raimondi, and W.P. Reinhardt, J. Chem. Phys. 1967, 47, 1300.

Electron binding energies

Electron binding energies for bromine. All values of electron binding energies are given in eV. The binding energies are quoted relative to the vacuum level for rare gases and H2, N2, O2, F2, and Cl2 molecules; relative to the Fermi level for metals; and relative to the top of the valence band for semiconductors.
Label Orbital eV [literature reference]
K 1s13474 [1]
L I2s1782 [2]
L II2p1/21596 [2]
L III2p3/21550 [2]
M I3s257 [2]
M II3p1/2189 [2]
M III3p3/2182 [2]
M IV3d3/270 [2]
M V3d5/269 [2]

Notes

I am grateful to Gwyn Williams (Jefferson Laboratory, Virginia, USA) who provided the electron binding energy data. The data are adapted from references 1-3. They are tabulated elsewhere on the WWW (reference 4) and in paper form (reference 5).

References

  1. J. A. Bearden and A. F. Burr, "Reevaluation of X-Ray Atomic Energy Levels," Rev. Mod. Phys., 1967, 39, 125.
  2. M. Cardona and L. Ley, Eds., Photoemission in Solids I: General Principles (Springer-Verlag, Berlin) with additional corrections, 1978.
  3. Gwyn Williams WWW table of values
  4. D.R. Lide, (Ed.) in Chemical Rubber Company handbook of chemistry and physics, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 81st edition, 2000.
  5. J. C. Fuggle and N. Mårtensson, "Core-Level Binding Energies in Metals," J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 1980, 21, 275.