โ–ธโ–ธ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง Actinium
  • ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ณ ้Œ’
  • ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฑ Actinium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท Actinium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช Actinium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฑ ืืงื˜ื™ื ื™ื•ื
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡น Attinio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ต ใ‚ขใ‚ฏใƒใƒ‹ใ‚ฆใƒ 
  • ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡น Actínio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡บ ะะบั‚ะธะฝะธะน
  • ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Actinio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ช Aktinium

Actinium: properties of free atoms

Actinium atoms have 89 electrons and the shell structure is  2.8.18.32.18.9.2.

The ground state electron configuration of ground state gaseous neutral actinium is  [Rn].6d1.7s2 and the term symbol is  2D3/2.

Kossel shell structure of actinium
Schematic electronic configuration of actinium.
Kossel shell structure of actinium
The Kossel shell structure of actinium.

Atomic spectrum

 

A representation of the atomic spectrum of actinium.

Ionisation Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of actinium is (no data) kJ mol‑1. The ionisation energies of actinium are given below.

Ionisation energies of actinium
Ionisation energy number Enthalpy / kJ mol‑1
1st519.11
2nd1134
3rd1682
4th4320
5th5310
6th6460
7th7620
8th9540
9th11000
10th13900
11th15500
12th22500 (calculated)
13th24600
14th26900
15th29400
16th31800
17th34300
18th37600
19th40100
20th42800
21st45300
Ionisation energies of actinium
Ionisation energies of actinium.

Effective Nuclear Charges

The following are "Clementi-Raimondi" effective nuclear charges, Zeff. Follow the hyperlinks for more details and for graphs in various formats.

Effective nuclear charges for actinium
1s(no data)  
2s(no data) 2p(no data)  
3s(no data) 3p(no data) 3d(no data)  
4s(no data) 4p(no data) 4d(no data) 4f(no data)
5s(no data) 5p(no data) 5d(no data)  
6s(no data) 6p(no data)  
7s   

References

These effective nuclear charges, Zeff, are adapted from the following references:

  1. E. Clementi and D.L.Raimondi, J. Chem. Phys. 1963, 38, 2686.
  2. E. Clementi, D.L.Raimondi, and W.P. Reinhardt, J. Chem. Phys. 1967, 47, 1300.

Electron binding energies

Electron binding energies for actinium. All values of electron binding energies are given in eV. The binding energies are quoted relative to the vacuum level for rare gases and H2, N2, O2, F2, and Cl2 molecules; relative to the Fermi level for metals; and relative to the top of the valence band for semiconductors.
Label Orbital eV [literature reference]
K 1s106755 [1]
L I2s19840 [1]
L II2p1/219083 [1]
L III2p3/215871 [1]
M I3s5002 [1]
M II3p1/24656 [1]
M III3p3/23909 [1]
M IV3d3/23370 [1]
M V3d5/23219 [1]
N I4s1269 [2]
N II4p1/21080 [2]
N III4p3/2890 [2]
N IV4d3/2675 [2]
N V4d5/2639 [2]
N VI4f5/2319 [2]
N VII4f7/2319 [2]
O I5s272 [2]
O II5p1/2215 [2]
O III5p3/2167 [2]
O IV5d3/280 [2]
O V5d5/280 [2]
P I6s -
P II6p1/2 -
P III6p3/2 -

Notes

I am grateful to Gwyn Williams (Jefferson Laboratory, Virginia, USA) who provided the electron binding energy data. The data are adapted from references 1-3. They are tabulated elsewhere on the WWW (reference 4) and in paper form (reference 5).

References

  1. J. A. Bearden and A. F. Burr, "Reevaluation of X-Ray Atomic Energy Levels," Rev. Mod. Phys., 1967, 39, 125.
  2. M. Cardona and L. Ley, Eds., Photoemission in Solids I: General Principles (Springer-Verlag, Berlin) with additional corrections, 1978.
  3. Gwyn Williams WWW table of values
  4. D.R. Lide, (Ed.) in Chemical Rubber Company handbook of chemistry and physics, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 81st edition, 2000.
  5. J. C. Fuggle and N. Mårtensson, "Core-Level Binding Energies in Metals," J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 1980, 21, 275.