โ–ธโ–ธ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง Livermorium
  • ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ณ ้‰
  • ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฑ Livermorium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท Livermorium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช Livermorium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฑ ืื•ื ื•ื ื”ืงืกื™ื•ื
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡น Livermorio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ต ใ‚ฆใƒณใ‚ฆใƒณใƒ˜ใ‚ญใ‚ทใ‚ฆใƒ 
  • ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡น Livermorio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡บ ะ›ะธะฒะตั€ะผะพั€ะธะน
  • ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Livermorio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ช Livermorium

Livermorium: properties of free atoms

Livermorium atoms have 116 electrons and the shell structure is  2.8.18.32.32.18.6.

The ground state electron configuration of ground state gaseous neutral livermorium is  [Rn].5f14.6d10.7s2.7p4 (a guess based upon that of polonium) and the term symbol is  3P2 (a guess based upon guessed electronic structure).

Kossel shell structure of livermorium
Schematic electronic configuration of livermorium.
Kossel shell structure of livermorium
The Kossel shell structure of livermorium.

Atomic spectrum

 

A representation of the atomic spectrum of livermorium.

Ionisation Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of livermorium is (no data) kJ mol‑1. The ionisation energies of livermorium are given below.

Ionisation energies of livermorium
Ionisation energy number Enthalpy / kJ mol‑1
1st724
Ionisation energies of livermorium
Ionisation energies of livermorium.

Effective Nuclear Charges

The following are "Clementi-Raimondi" effective nuclear charges, Zeff. Follow the hyperlinks for more details and for graphs in various formats.

Effective nuclear charges for livermorium
1s(no data)  
2s(no data) 2p(no data)  
3s(no data) 3p(no data) 3d(no data)  
4s(no data) 4p(no data) 4d(no data) 4f(no data)
5s(no data) 5p(no data) 5d(no data)  
6s(no data) 6p(no data)  
7s   

References

These effective nuclear charges, Zeff, are adapted from the following references:

  1. E. Clementi and D.L.Raimondi, J. Chem. Phys. 1963, 38, 2686.
  2. E. Clementi, D.L.Raimondi, and W.P. Reinhardt, J. Chem. Phys. 1967, 47, 1300.

Electron binding energies

Electron binding energies for livermorium. All values of electron binding energies are given in eV. The binding energies are quoted relative to the vacuum level for rare gases and H2, N2, O2, F2, and Cl2 molecules; relative to the Fermi level for metals; and relative to the top of the valence band for semiconductors.
Label Orbital eV [literature reference]

Notes

I am grateful to Gwyn Williams (Jefferson Laboratory, Virginia, USA) who provided the electron binding energy data. The data are adapted from references 1-3. They are tabulated elsewhere on the WWW (reference 4) and in paper form (reference 5).

References

  1. J. A. Bearden and A. F. Burr, "Reevaluation of X-Ray Atomic Energy Levels," Rev. Mod. Phys., 1967, 39, 125.
  2. M. Cardona and L. Ley, Eds., Photoemission in Solids I: General Principles (Springer-Verlag, Berlin) with additional corrections, 1978.
  3. Gwyn Williams WWW table of values
  4. D.R. Lide, (Ed.) in Chemical Rubber Company handbook of chemistry and physics, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 81st edition, 2000.
  5. J. C. Fuggle and N. Mårtensson, "Core-Level Binding Energies in Metals," J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 1980, 21, 275.