โ–ธโ–ธ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง Silver
  • ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ณ ้Š€
  • ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฑ Zilver
  • ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท Argent
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช Silber
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฑ ื›ืกืฃ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡น Argento
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ต ้Š€
  • ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡น Prata
  • ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡บ ะกะตั€ะตะฑั€ะพ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Plata
  • ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ช Silver

Silver: properties of free atoms

Silver atoms have 47 electrons and the shell structure is  2.8.18.18.1.

The ground state electron configuration of ground state gaseous neutral silver is  [Kr].4d10.5s1 and the term symbol is  2S1/2.

Kossel shell structure of silver
Schematic electronic configuration of silver.
Kossel shell structure of silver
The Kossel shell structure of silver.

Atomic spectrum

 

A representation of the atomic spectrum of silver.

Ionisation Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of silver is 125.6 kJ mol‑1. The ionisation energies of silver are given below.

Ionisation energies of silver
Ionisation energy number Enthalpy / kJ mol‑1
1st731.00
2nd2072.93
3rd3358
4th4728
5th6272
6th7912
7th10230
8th12060
9th14000
10th16110
11th18140
12th26190 (inferred)
13th28400
14th31000
15th33500
16th36800
17th39400
18th45300
19th48300
20th85400
21st91300
Ionisation energies of silver
Ionisation energies of silver.

Effective Nuclear Charges

The following are "Clementi-Raimondi" effective nuclear charges, Zeff. Follow the hyperlinks for more details and for graphs in various formats.

Effective nuclear charges for silver
1s46.04  
2s34.63 2p42.92  
3s30.03 3p29.81 3d32.54  
4s19.86 4p18.56 4d14.76 4f(no data)
5s6.76 5p(no data) 5d(no data)  
6s(no data) 6p(no data)  
7s   

References

These effective nuclear charges, Zeff, are adapted from the following references:

  1. E. Clementi and D.L.Raimondi, J. Chem. Phys. 1963, 38, 2686.
  2. E. Clementi, D.L.Raimondi, and W.P. Reinhardt, J. Chem. Phys. 1967, 47, 1300.

Electron binding energies

Electron binding energies for silver. All values of electron binding energies are given in eV. The binding energies are quoted relative to the vacuum level for rare gases and H2, N2, O2, F2, and Cl2 molecules; relative to the Fermi level for metals; and relative to the top of the valence band for semiconductors.
Label Orbital eV [literature reference]
K 1s25514 [1]
L I2s3806 [1]
L II2p1/23524 [1]
L III2p3/23351 [1]
M I3s719 [3]
M II3p1/2603.8 [3]
M III3p3/2573 [3]
M IV3d3/2374 [3]
M V3d5/2368.3 [1]
N I4s97 [3]
N II4p1/263.7 [3]
N III4p3/258.3 [3]

Notes

I am grateful to Gwyn Williams (Jefferson Laboratory, Virginia, USA) who provided the electron binding energy data. The data are adapted from references 1-3. They are tabulated elsewhere on the WWW (reference 4) and in paper form (reference 5).

References

  1. J. A. Bearden and A. F. Burr, "Reevaluation of X-Ray Atomic Energy Levels," Rev. Mod. Phys., 1967, 39, 125.
  2. M. Cardona and L. Ley, Eds., Photoemission in Solids I: General Principles (Springer-Verlag, Berlin) with additional corrections, 1978.
  3. Gwyn Williams WWW table of values
  4. D.R. Lide, (Ed.) in Chemical Rubber Company handbook of chemistry and physics, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 81st edition, 2000.
  5. J. C. Fuggle and N. Mårtensson, "Core-Level Binding Energies in Metals," J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 1980, 21, 275.