โ–ธโ–ธ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง Vanadium
  • ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ณ ้‡ฉ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฑ Vanadium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท Vanadium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช Vanadium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฑ ื•ื ื“ื™ื•ื
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡น Vanadio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ต ใƒใƒŠใ‚ธใ‚ฆใƒ 
  • ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡น Vanádio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡บ ะ’ะฐะฝะฐะดะธะน
  • ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Vanadio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ช Vanadin

Vanadium: properties of free atoms

Vanadium atoms have 23 electrons and the shell structure is  2.8.11.2.

The ground state electron configuration of ground state gaseous neutral vanadium is  [Ar].3d3.4s2 and the term symbol is  4F3/2.

Kossel shell structure of vanadium
Schematic electronic configuration of vanadium.
Kossel shell structure of vanadium
The Kossel shell structure of vanadium.

Atomic spectrum

 

A representation of the atomic spectrum of vanadium.

Ionisation Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of vanadium is 50.6 kJ mol‑1. The ionisation energies of vanadium are given below.

Ionisation energies of vanadium
Ionisation energy number Enthalpy / kJ mol‑1
1st650.91
2nd1412.0
3rd2828.09
4th4506.7
5th6298.72
6th12360
7th14540
8th16750
9th19880
10th22240
11th24580
12th29770 (inferred)
13th32450
14th86450
15th94290
16th103000
17th112000
18th121000
19th131000
20th143000
21st151449
Ionisation energies of vanadium
Ionisation energies of vanadium.

Effective Nuclear Charges

The following are "Clementi-Raimondi" effective nuclear charges, Zeff. Follow the hyperlinks for more details and for graphs in various formats.

Effective nuclear charges for vanadium
1s22.4256  
2s16.18 2p19.07  
3s11.71 3p10.79 3d8.98  
4s4.98 4p(no data) 4d(no data) 4f(no data)
5s(no data) 5p(no data) 5d(no data)  
6s(no data) 6p(no data)  
7s   

References

These effective nuclear charges, Zeff, are adapted from the following references:

  1. E. Clementi and D.L.Raimondi, J. Chem. Phys. 1963, 38, 2686.
  2. E. Clementi, D.L.Raimondi, and W.P. Reinhardt, J. Chem. Phys. 1967, 47, 1300.

Electron binding energies

Electron binding energies for vanadium. All values of electron binding energies are given in eV. The binding energies are quoted relative to the vacuum level for rare gases and H2, N2, O2, F2, and Cl2 molecules; relative to the Fermi level for metals; and relative to the top of the valence band for semiconductors.
Label Orbital eV [literature reference]
K 1s5465 [1]
L I2s626.7 [3]
L II2p1/2519.8 [3]
L III2p3/2512.1 [3]
M I3s66.3 [3]
M II3p1/237.2 [3]
M III3p3/237.2 [3]

Notes

I am grateful to Gwyn Williams (Jefferson Laboratory, Virginia, USA) who provided the electron binding energy data. The data are adapted from references 1-3. They are tabulated elsewhere on the WWW (reference 4) and in paper form (reference 5).

References

  1. J. A. Bearden and A. F. Burr, "Reevaluation of X-Ray Atomic Energy Levels," Rev. Mod. Phys., 1967, 39, 125.
  2. M. Cardona and L. Ley, Eds., Photoemission in Solids I: General Principles (Springer-Verlag, Berlin) with additional corrections, 1978.
  3. Gwyn Williams WWW table of values
  4. D.R. Lide, (Ed.) in Chemical Rubber Company handbook of chemistry and physics, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 81st edition, 2000.
  5. J. C. Fuggle and N. Mårtensson, "Core-Level Binding Energies in Metals," J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 1980, 21, 275.