โ–ธโ–ธ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง Dubnium
  • ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ณ ๐จง€
  • ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฑ Dubnium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท Dubnium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช Dubnium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฑ ื“ื•ื‘ื ื™ื•ื
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡น Dubnio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ต ใƒ‰ใƒ–ใƒ‹ใ‚ฆใƒ 
  • ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡น Dubnium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡บ ะ”ัƒะฑะฝะธะน
  • ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Dubnio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ช Dubnium

Dubnium: properties of free atoms

Dubnium atoms have 105 electrons and the shell structure is  2.8.18.32.32.11.2.

The ground state electron configuration of ground state gaseous neutral dubnium is  [Rn].5f14.6d3.7s2 (a guess based upon that of tantalum) and the term symbol is  4F3/2 (a guess based upon guessed electronic structure).

Kossel shell structure of dubnium
Schematic electronic configuration of dubnium.
Kossel shell structure of dubnium
The Kossel shell structure of dubnium.

Atomic spectrum

 

A representation of the atomic spectrum of dubnium.

Ionisation Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of dubnium is (no data) kJ mol‑1. The ionisation energies of dubnium are given below.

Ionisation energies of dubnium
Ionisation energy number Enthalpy / kJ mol‑1
1st656 (calculated)
2nd1350
3rd2230
4th3180
5th4150
6th8300
7th9540
8th12200
9th14000
10th16600
11th18900
12th21300 (calculated)
13th24500
14th26400
15th29600
Ionisation energies of dubnium
Ionisation energies of dubnium.

Effective Nuclear Charges

The following are "Clementi-Raimondi" effective nuclear charges, Zeff. Follow the hyperlinks for more details and for graphs in various formats.

Effective nuclear charges for dubnium
1s(no data)  
2s(no data) 2p(no data)  
3s(no data) 3p(no data) 3d(no data)  
4s(no data) 4p(no data) 4d(no data) 4f(no data)
5s(no data) 5p(no data) 5d(no data)  
6s(no data) 6p(no data)  
7s   

References

These effective nuclear charges, Zeff, are adapted from the following references:

  1. E. Clementi and D.L.Raimondi, J. Chem. Phys. 1963, 38, 2686.
  2. E. Clementi, D.L.Raimondi, and W.P. Reinhardt, J. Chem. Phys. 1967, 47, 1300.

Electron binding energies

Electron binding energies for dubnium. All values of electron binding energies are given in eV. The binding energies are quoted relative to the vacuum level for rare gases and H2, N2, O2, F2, and Cl2 molecules; relative to the Fermi level for metals; and relative to the top of the valence band for semiconductors.
Label Orbital eV [literature reference]

Notes

I am grateful to Gwyn Williams (Jefferson Laboratory, Virginia, USA) who provided the electron binding energy data. The data are adapted from references 1-3. They are tabulated elsewhere on the WWW (reference 4) and in paper form (reference 5).

References

  1. J. A. Bearden and A. F. Burr, "Reevaluation of X-Ray Atomic Energy Levels," Rev. Mod. Phys., 1967, 39, 125.
  2. M. Cardona and L. Ley, Eds., Photoemission in Solids I: General Principles (Springer-Verlag, Berlin) with additional corrections, 1978.
  3. Gwyn Williams WWW table of values
  4. D.R. Lide, (Ed.) in Chemical Rubber Company handbook of chemistry and physics, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 81st edition, 2000.
  5. J. C. Fuggle and N. Mårtensson, "Core-Level Binding Energies in Metals," J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 1980, 21, 275.