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Radium: properties of free atoms

Radium atoms have 88 electrons and the shell structure is  2.8.18.32.18.8.2.

The ground state electron configuration of ground state gaseous neutral radium is  [Rn].7s2 and the term symbol is  1S0.

Kossel shell structure of radium
Schematic electronic configuration of radium.
Kossel shell structure of radium
The Kossel shell structure of radium.

Atomic spectrum

 

A representation of the atomic spectrum of radium.

Ionisation Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of radium is (no data) kJ mol‑1. The ionisation energies of radium are given below.

Ionisation energies of radium
Ionisation energy number Enthalpy / kJ mol‑1
1st509.29
2nd979.05
3rd2990
4th3960
5th5100
6th6180
7th7910
8th9360
9th12000
10th13500
11th19800
12th21900 (calculated)
13th24100
14th26400
15th28800
16th31300
17th34300
18th36900
19th39500
20th42000
21st55000
Ionisation energies of radium
Ionisation energies of radium.

Effective Nuclear Charges

The following are "Clementi-Raimondi" effective nuclear charges, Zeff. Follow the hyperlinks for more details and for graphs in various formats.

Effective nuclear charges for radium
1s(no data)  
2s(no data) 2p(no data)  
3s(no data) 3p(no data) 3d(no data)  
4s(no data) 4p(no data) 4d(no data) 4f(no data)
5s(no data) 5p(no data) 5d(no data)  
6s(no data) 6p(no data)  
7s   

References

These effective nuclear charges, Zeff, are adapted from the following references:

  1. E. Clementi and D.L.Raimondi, J. Chem. Phys. 1963, 38, 2686.
  2. E. Clementi, D.L.Raimondi, and W.P. Reinhardt, J. Chem. Phys. 1967, 47, 1300.

Electron binding energies

Electron binding energies for radium. All values of electron binding energies are given in eV. The binding energies are quoted relative to the vacuum level for rare gases and H2, N2, O2, F2, and Cl2 molecules; relative to the Fermi level for metals; and relative to the top of the valence band for semiconductors.
Label Orbital eV [literature reference]
K 1s103922 [1]
L I2s19237 [1]
L II2p1/218484 [1]
L III2p3/215444 [1]
M I3s4822 [1]
M II3p1/24490 [1]
M III3p3/23792 [1]
M IV3d3/23248 [1]
M V3d5/23105 [1]
N I4s1208 [2]
N II4p1/21058 [1]
N III4p3/2879 [2]
N IV4d3/2636 [2]
N V4d5/2603 [2]
N VI4f5/2299 [2]
N VII4f7/2299 [2]
O I5s254 [2]
O II5p1/2200 [2]
O III5p3/2153 [2]
O IV5d3/268 [2]
O V5d5/268 [2]
P I6s44 [1]
P II6p1/219 [1]
P III6p3/219 [1]

Notes

I am grateful to Gwyn Williams (Jefferson Laboratory, Virginia, USA) who provided the electron binding energy data. The data are adapted from references 1-3. They are tabulated elsewhere on the WWW (reference 4) and in paper form (reference 5).

References

  1. J. A. Bearden and A. F. Burr, "Reevaluation of X-Ray Atomic Energy Levels," Rev. Mod. Phys., 1967, 39, 125.
  2. M. Cardona and L. Ley, Eds., Photoemission in Solids I: General Principles (Springer-Verlag, Berlin) with additional corrections, 1978.
  3. Gwyn Williams WWW table of values
  4. D.R. Lide, (Ed.) in Chemical Rubber Company handbook of chemistry and physics, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 81st edition, 2000.
  5. J. C. Fuggle and N. Mårtensson, "Core-Level Binding Energies in Metals," J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 1980, 21, 275.