โ–ธโ–ธ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง Tungsten
  • ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ณ ้Žข
  • ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฑ Wolfraam
  • ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท Tungstène
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช Wolfram
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฑ ื˜ื•ื ื’ืกื˜ืŸ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡น Tungsteno (wolframio)
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ต ใ‚ฟใƒณใ‚ฐใ‚นใƒ†ใƒณ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡น Tungstênio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡บ ะ’ะพะปัŒั„ั€ะฐะผ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Wolframio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ช Volfram

Tungsten: properties of free atoms

Tungsten atoms have 74 electrons and the shell structure is  2.8.18.32.12.2.

The ground state electron configuration of ground state gaseous neutral tungsten is  [Xe].4f14.5d4.6s2 and the term symbol is  5D0.

Kossel shell structure of tungsten
Schematic electronic configuration of tungsten.
Kossel shell structure of tungsten
The Kossel shell structure of tungsten.

Atomic spectrum

 

A representation of the atomic spectrum of tungsten.

Ionisation Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of tungsten is 78.6 kJ mol‑1. The ionisation energies of tungsten are given below.

Ionisation energies of tungsten
Ionisation energy number Enthalpy / kJ mol‑1
1st758.76
2nd1580
3rd2510
4th3690
5th4979
6th6249
7th11770
8th13620
9th15460
10th17270
11th20160
12th22350 (inferred)
13th24900
14th28000
15th31400
16th34900
17th37400
18th40600
19th44600
20th48500
21st52400
Ionisation energies of tungsten
Ionisation energies of tungsten.

Effective Nuclear Charges

The following are "Clementi-Raimondi" effective nuclear charges, Zeff. Follow the hyperlinks for more details and for graphs in various formats.

Effective nuclear charges for tungsten
1s72.57  
2s54.67 2p69.57  
3s51.87 3p52.62 3d60.45  
4s40.56 4p39.55 4d37.17 4f34.71
5s23.54 5p21.33 5d16.74  
6s9.85 6p(no data)  
7s   

References

These effective nuclear charges, Zeff, are adapted from the following references:

  1. E. Clementi and D.L.Raimondi, J. Chem. Phys. 1963, 38, 2686.
  2. E. Clementi, D.L.Raimondi, and W.P. Reinhardt, J. Chem. Phys. 1967, 47, 1300.

Electron binding energies

Electron binding energies for tungsten. All values of electron binding energies are given in eV. The binding energies are quoted relative to the vacuum level for rare gases and H2, N2, O2, F2, and Cl2 molecules; relative to the Fermi level for metals; and relative to the top of the valence band for semiconductors.
Label Orbital eV [literature reference]
K 1s69525 [1]
L I2s12100 [1]
L II2p1/211544 [1]
L III2p3/210207 [1]
M I3s2820 [1]
M II3p1/22575 [1]
M III3p3/22281 [1]
M IV3d3/21949 [1]
M V3d5/21809 [1]
N I4s594.1 [3]
N II4p1/2490.4 [3]
N III4p3/2423.6 [3]
N IV4d3/2255.9 [3]
N V4d5/2243.5 [3]
N VI4f5/233.6 [2]
N VII4f7/231.4 [3]
O I5s75.6 [3]
O II5p1/245.3 [2, values derived from reference 1]
O III5p3/236.8 [3]

Notes

I am grateful to Gwyn Williams (Jefferson Laboratory, Virginia, USA) who provided the electron binding energy data. The data are adapted from references 1-3. They are tabulated elsewhere on the WWW (reference 4) and in paper form (reference 5).

References

  1. J. A. Bearden and A. F. Burr, "Reevaluation of X-Ray Atomic Energy Levels," Rev. Mod. Phys., 1967, 39, 125.
  2. M. Cardona and L. Ley, Eds., Photoemission in Solids I: General Principles (Springer-Verlag, Berlin) with additional corrections, 1978.
  3. Gwyn Williams WWW table of values
  4. D.R. Lide, (Ed.) in Chemical Rubber Company handbook of chemistry and physics, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 81st edition, 2000.
  5. J. C. Fuggle and N. Mårtensson, "Core-Level Binding Energies in Metals," J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 1980, 21, 275.