โ–ธโ–ธ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง Manganese
  • ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ณ ้Œณ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฑ Mangaan
  • ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท Manganèse
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช Mangan
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฑ ืžื ื’ืŸ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡น Manganese
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ต ใƒžใƒณใ‚ฌใƒณ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡น Manganês
  • ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡บ ะœะฐั€ะณะฐะฝะตั†
  • ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Manganeso
  • ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ช Mangan

Manganese: properties of free atoms

Manganese atoms have 25 electrons and the shell structure is  2.8.13.2.

The ground state electron configuration of ground state gaseous neutral manganese is  [Ar].3d5.4s2 and the term symbol is  6S5/2.

Kossel shell structure of manganese
Schematic electronic configuration of manganese.
Kossel shell structure of manganese
The Kossel shell structure of manganese.

Atomic spectrum

 

A representation of the atomic spectrum of manganese.

Ionisation Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of manganese is 0 kJ mol‑1. The ionisation energies of manganese are given below.

Ionisation energies of manganese
Ionisation energy number Enthalpy / kJ mol‑1
1st717.28
2nd1509.03
3rd3248.5
4th4941
5th6987
6th9224
7th11500
8th18860
9th21410
10th23990
11th27600
12th30330 (inferred)
13th33150
14th38880
15th41990
16th109000
17th118000
18th127000
19th138000
20th148000
21st159000
Ionisation energies of manganese
Ionisation energies of manganese.

Effective Nuclear Charges

The following are "Clementi-Raimondi" effective nuclear charges, Zeff. Follow the hyperlinks for more details and for graphs in various formats.

Effective nuclear charges for manganese
1s24.3957  
2s17.79 2p21.08  
3s13.02 3p12.11 3d10.53  
4s5.28 4p(no data) 4d(no data) 4f(no data)
5s(no data) 5p(no data) 5d(no data)  
6s(no data) 6p(no data)  
7s   

References

These effective nuclear charges, Zeff, are adapted from the following references:

  1. E. Clementi and D.L.Raimondi, J. Chem. Phys. 1963, 38, 2686.
  2. E. Clementi, D.L.Raimondi, and W.P. Reinhardt, J. Chem. Phys. 1967, 47, 1300.

Electron binding energies

Electron binding energies for manganese. All values of electron binding energies are given in eV. The binding energies are quoted relative to the vacuum level for rare gases and H2, N2, O2, F2, and Cl2 molecules; relative to the Fermi level for metals; and relative to the top of the valence band for semiconductors.
Label Orbital eV [literature reference]
K 1s6539 [1]
L I2s769.1 [3]
L II2p1/2649.9 [3]
L III2p3/2638.7 [3]
M I3s82.3 [3]
M II3p1/247.2 [3]
M III3p3/247.2 [3]

Notes

I am grateful to Gwyn Williams (Jefferson Laboratory, Virginia, USA) who provided the electron binding energy data. The data are adapted from references 1-3. They are tabulated elsewhere on the WWW (reference 4) and in paper form (reference 5).

References

  1. J. A. Bearden and A. F. Burr, "Reevaluation of X-Ray Atomic Energy Levels," Rev. Mod. Phys., 1967, 39, 125.
  2. M. Cardona and L. Ley, Eds., Photoemission in Solids I: General Principles (Springer-Verlag, Berlin) with additional corrections, 1978.
  3. Gwyn Williams WWW table of values
  4. D.R. Lide, (Ed.) in Chemical Rubber Company handbook of chemistry and physics, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 81st edition, 2000.
  5. J. C. Fuggle and N. Mårtensson, "Core-Level Binding Energies in Metals," J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 1980, 21, 275.