โ–ธโ–ธ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง Lutetium
  • ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ณ ้Žฆ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฑ Lutetium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท Lutécium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช Lutetium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฑ ืœื•ื˜ื˜ื™ื•ื
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡น Lutezio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ต ใƒซใƒ†ใƒใ‚ฆใƒ 
  • ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡น Lutécio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡บ ะ›ัŽั‚ะตั†ะธะน
  • ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Lutecio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ช Lutetium

Lutetium: properties of free atoms

Lutetium atoms have 71 electrons and the shell structure is  2.8.18.32.9.2.

The ground state electron configuration of ground state gaseous neutral lutetium is  [Xe].4f14.5d1.6s2 and the term symbol is  2D3/2.

Kossel shell structure of lutetium
Schematic electronic configuration of lutetium.
Kossel shell structure of lutetium
The Kossel shell structure of lutetium.

Atomic spectrum

 

A representation of the atomic spectrum of lutetium.

Ionisation Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of lutetium is 33 http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0953-4075/34/14/102 kJ mol‑1. The ionisation energies of lutetium are given below.

Ionisation energies of lutetium
Ionisation energy number Enthalpy / kJ mol‑1
1st523.52
2nd1363
3rd2022.27
4th4365.9
5th6450
6th9460
7th11300
8th13100
9th15300
10th17800
11th19800
12th23000 (calculated)
13th26600
14th29400
15th31600
16th34800
17th38500
18th42300
19th45900
20th50200
21st54000
Ionisation energies of lutetium
Ionisation energies of lutetium.

Effective Nuclear Charges

The following are "Clementi-Raimondi" effective nuclear charges, Zeff. Follow the hyperlinks for more details and for graphs in various formats.

Effective nuclear charges for lutetium
1s69.62  
2s52.45 2p66.61  
3s49.53 3p50.17 3d57.42  
4s38.27 4p37.19 4d35.29 4f30.93
5s20.96 5p18.68 5d20.11  
6s8.80 6p(no data)  
7s   

References

These effective nuclear charges, Zeff, are adapted from the following references:

  1. E. Clementi and D.L.Raimondi, J. Chem. Phys. 1963, 38, 2686.
  2. E. Clementi, D.L.Raimondi, and W.P. Reinhardt, J. Chem. Phys. 1967, 47, 1300.

Electron binding energies

Electron binding energies for lutetium. All values of electron binding energies are given in eV. The binding energies are quoted relative to the vacuum level for rare gases and H2, N2, O2, F2, and Cl2 molecules; relative to the Fermi level for metals; and relative to the top of the valence band for semiconductors.
Label Orbital eV [literature reference]
K 1s63314 [1]
L I2s10870 [1]
L II2p1/210349 [1]
L III2p3/29244 [1]
M I3s2491 [1]
M II3p1/22264 [1]
M III3p3/22024 [1]
M IV3d3/21639 [1]
M V3d5/21589 [1]
N I4s506.8 [2]
N II4p1/2412.4 [2]
N III4p3/2359.2 [2]
N IV4d3/2206.1 [2]
N V4d5/2196.3 [2]
N VI4f5/28.9 [2]
N VII4f7/27.5 [2]
O I5s57.3 [2]
O II5p1/233.6 [2]
O III5p3/226.7 [2]

Notes

I am grateful to Gwyn Williams (Jefferson Laboratory, Virginia, USA) who provided the electron binding energy data. The data are adapted from references 1-3. They are tabulated elsewhere on the WWW (reference 4) and in paper form (reference 5).

References

  1. J. A. Bearden and A. F. Burr, "Reevaluation of X-Ray Atomic Energy Levels," Rev. Mod. Phys., 1967, 39, 125.
  2. M. Cardona and L. Ley, Eds., Photoemission in Solids I: General Principles (Springer-Verlag, Berlin) with additional corrections, 1978.
  3. Gwyn Williams WWW table of values
  4. D.R. Lide, (Ed.) in Chemical Rubber Company handbook of chemistry and physics, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 81st edition, 2000.
  5. J. C. Fuggle and N. Mårtensson, "Core-Level Binding Energies in Metals," J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 1980, 21, 275.