โ–ธโ–ธ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง Neodymium
  • ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ณ ้‡น
  • ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฑ Neodymium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท Néodyme
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช Neodym
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฑ ื ื™ืื•ื“ื™ืžื™ื•ื
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡น Neodimio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ต ใƒใ‚ชใ‚ธใƒ 
  • ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡น Neodímio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡บ ะะตะพะดะธะผ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Neodimio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ช Neodym

Neodymium: properties of free atoms

Neodymium atoms have 60 electrons and the shell structure is  2.8.18.22.8.2.

The ground state electron configuration of ground state gaseous neutral neodymium is  [Xe].4f4.6s2 and the term symbol is  5I4.

Kossel shell structure of neodymium
Schematic electronic configuration of neodymium.
Kossel shell structure of neodymium
The Kossel shell structure of neodymium.

Atomic spectrum

 

A representation of the atomic spectrum of neodymium.

Ionisation Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of neodymium is 50 kJ mol‑1. The ionisation energies of neodymium are given below.

Ionisation energies of neodymium
Ionisation energy number Enthalpy / kJ mol‑1
1st533.08
2nd1040.4
3rd2130
4th3920
5th5790
6th8100
7th9550
8th11000
9th13100
10th14700
11th16200
12th18800 (calculated)
13th21300
14th23400
15th37500
16th40500
17th43700
18th47200
19th50400
20th54200
21st58100
Ionisation energies of neodymium
Ionisation energies of neodymium.

Effective Nuclear Charges

The following are "Clementi-Raimondi" effective nuclear charges, Zeff. Follow the hyperlinks for more details and for graphs in various formats.

Effective nuclear charges for neodymium
1s58.81  
2s44.22 2p55.76  
3s40.34 3p40.69 3d46.16  
4s30.99 4p30.01 4d26.81 4f22.27
5s18.74 5p16.96 5d(no data)  
6s9.31 6p(no data)  
7s   

References

These effective nuclear charges, Zeff, are adapted from the following references:

  1. E. Clementi and D.L.Raimondi, J. Chem. Phys. 1963, 38, 2686.
  2. E. Clementi, D.L.Raimondi, and W.P. Reinhardt, J. Chem. Phys. 1967, 47, 1300.

Electron binding energies

Electron binding energies for neodymium. All values of electron binding energies are given in eV. The binding energies are quoted relative to the vacuum level for rare gases and H2, N2, O2, F2, and Cl2 molecules; relative to the Fermi level for metals; and relative to the top of the valence band for semiconductors.
Label Orbital eV [literature reference]
K 1s43569 [1]
L I2s7126 [1]
L II2p1/26722 [1]
L III2p3/26208 [1]
M I3s1575 [1]
M II3p1/21403 [1]
M III3p3/21297 [1]
M IV3d3/21003.3 [2]
M V3d5/2980.4 [2]
N I4s319.2 [2]
N II4p1/2243.3 [1]
N III4p3/2224.6 [1]
N IV4d3/2120.5 [2]
N V4d5/2120.5 [2]
N VI4f5/21.5 [1]
N VII4f7/21.5 [1]
O I5s37.5 [1]
O II5p1/221.1 [1]
O III5p3/221.1 [1]

Notes

I am grateful to Gwyn Williams (Jefferson Laboratory, Virginia, USA) who provided the electron binding energy data. The data are adapted from references 1-3. They are tabulated elsewhere on the WWW (reference 4) and in paper form (reference 5).

References

  1. J. A. Bearden and A. F. Burr, "Reevaluation of X-Ray Atomic Energy Levels," Rev. Mod. Phys., 1967, 39, 125.
  2. M. Cardona and L. Ley, Eds., Photoemission in Solids I: General Principles (Springer-Verlag, Berlin) with additional corrections, 1978.
  3. Gwyn Williams WWW table of values
  4. D.R. Lide, (Ed.) in Chemical Rubber Company handbook of chemistry and physics, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 81st edition, 2000.
  5. J. C. Fuggle and N. Mårtensson, "Core-Level Binding Energies in Metals," J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 1980, 21, 275.