โ–ธโ–ธ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง Copernicium
  • ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ณ ้Žถ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฑ Copernicium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท Copernicium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช Copernicium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฑ ืงื•ืคืจื ื™ืงื™ื•ื
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡น Copernicio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ต ใ‚ณใƒšใƒซใƒ‹ใ‚ทใ‚ฆใƒ 
  • ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡น Copernicio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡บ ะšะพะฟะตั€ะฝะธั†ะธะน
  • ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Copernicio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ช Copernicium

Copernicium: properties of free atoms

Copernicium atoms have 112 electrons and the shell structure is  2.8.18.32.32.18.2.

The ground state electron configuration of ground state gaseous neutral copernicium is  [Rn].5f14.6d10.7s2 (a guess based upon that of mercury) and the term symbol is  1S0 (a guess based upon guessed electronic structure).

Kossel shell structure of copernicium
Schematic electronic configuration of copernicium.
Kossel shell structure of copernicium
The Kossel shell structure of copernicium.

Atomic spectrum

 

A representation of the atomic spectrum of copernicium.

Ionisation Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of copernicium is (no data) kJ mol‑1. The ionisation energies of copernicium are given below.

Ionisation energies of copernicium
Ionisation energy number Enthalpy / kJ mol‑1
1st1155
Ionisation energies of copernicium
Ionisation energies of copernicium.

Effective Nuclear Charges

The following are "Clementi-Raimondi" effective nuclear charges, Zeff. Follow the hyperlinks for more details and for graphs in various formats.

Effective nuclear charges for copernicium
1s(no data)  
2s(no data) 2p(no data)  
3s(no data) 3p(no data) 3d(no data)  
4s(no data) 4p(no data) 4d(no data) 4f(no data)
5s(no data) 5p(no data) 5d(no data)  
6s(no data) 6p(no data)  
7s   

References

These effective nuclear charges, Zeff, are adapted from the following references:

  1. E. Clementi and D.L.Raimondi, J. Chem. Phys. 1963, 38, 2686.
  2. E. Clementi, D.L.Raimondi, and W.P. Reinhardt, J. Chem. Phys. 1967, 47, 1300.

Electron binding energies

Electron binding energies for copernicium. All values of electron binding energies are given in eV. The binding energies are quoted relative to the vacuum level for rare gases and H2, N2, O2, F2, and Cl2 molecules; relative to the Fermi level for metals; and relative to the top of the valence band for semiconductors.
Label Orbital eV [literature reference]

Notes

I am grateful to Gwyn Williams (Jefferson Laboratory, Virginia, USA) who provided the electron binding energy data. The data are adapted from references 1-3. They are tabulated elsewhere on the WWW (reference 4) and in paper form (reference 5).

References

  1. J. A. Bearden and A. F. Burr, "Reevaluation of X-Ray Atomic Energy Levels," Rev. Mod. Phys., 1967, 39, 125.
  2. M. Cardona and L. Ley, Eds., Photoemission in Solids I: General Principles (Springer-Verlag, Berlin) with additional corrections, 1978.
  3. Gwyn Williams WWW table of values
  4. D.R. Lide, (Ed.) in Chemical Rubber Company handbook of chemistry and physics, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 81st edition, 2000.
  5. J. C. Fuggle and N. Mårtensson, "Core-Level Binding Energies in Metals," J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 1980, 21, 275.