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  • ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง Ytterbium
  • ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ณ ้ฟ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฑ Ytterbium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท Ytterbium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช Ytterbium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฑ ืื™ื˜ืจื‘ื™ื•ื
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  • ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡บ ะ˜ั‚ั‚ะตั€ะฑะธะน
  • ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Yterbio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ช Ytterbium

Ytterbium: properties of free atoms

Ytterbium atoms have 70 electrons and the shell structure is  2.8.18.32.8.2.

The ground state electron configuration of ground state gaseous neutral ytterbium is  [Xe].4f14.6s2 and the term symbol is  1S0.

Kossel shell structure of ytterbium
Schematic electronic configuration of ytterbium.
Kossel shell structure of ytterbium
The Kossel shell structure of ytterbium.

Atomic spectrum

 

A representation of the atomic spectrum of ytterbium.

Ionisation Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of ytterbium is 50 kJ mol‑1. The ionisation energies of ytterbium are given below.

Ionisation energies of ytterbium
Ionisation energy number Enthalpy / kJ mol‑1
1st603.43
2nd1175.11
3rd2417.2
4th4210
5th6330
6th9550
7th11300
8th13000
9th15700
10th17600
11th20200
12th23500 (calculated)
13th26900
14th29000
15th31300
16th34700
17th38200
18th41600
19th45300
20th48700
21st52100
Ionisation energies of ytterbium
Ionisation energies of ytterbium.

Effective Nuclear Charges

The following are "Clementi-Raimondi" effective nuclear charges, Zeff. Follow the hyperlinks for more details and for graphs in various formats.

Effective nuclear charges for ytterbium
1s68.64  
2s51.69 2p65.63  
3s48.76 3p49.34 3d56.40  
4s37.52 4p36.40 4d33.59 4f29.43
5s20.15 5p17.83 5d(no data)  
6s8.59 6p(no data)  
7s   

References

These effective nuclear charges, Zeff, are adapted from the following references:

  1. E. Clementi and D.L.Raimondi, J. Chem. Phys. 1963, 38, 2686.
  2. E. Clementi, D.L.Raimondi, and W.P. Reinhardt, J. Chem. Phys. 1967, 47, 1300.

Electron binding energies

Electron binding energies for ytterbium. All values of electron binding energies are given in eV. The binding energies are quoted relative to the vacuum level for rare gases and H2, N2, O2, F2, and Cl2 molecules; relative to the Fermi level for metals; and relative to the top of the valence band for semiconductors.
Label Orbital eV [literature reference]
K 1s61332 [1]
L I2s10486 [1]
L II2p1/29978 [1]
L III2p3/28944 [1]
M I3s2398 [1]
M II3p1/22173 [1]
M III3p3/21950 [1]
M IV3d3/21576 [1]
M V3d5/21528 [1]
N I4s480.5 [2]
N II4p1/2388.7 [2]
N III4p3/2339.7 [2]
N IV4d3/2191.2 [2]
N V4d5/2182.4 [2]
N VI4f5/22.5 [2]
N VII4f7/21.3 [2]
O I5s52 [2]
O II5p1/230.3 [2]
O III5p3/224.1 [2]

Notes

I am grateful to Gwyn Williams (Jefferson Laboratory, Virginia, USA) who provided the electron binding energy data. The data are adapted from references 1-3. They are tabulated elsewhere on the WWW (reference 4) and in paper form (reference 5).

References

  1. J. A. Bearden and A. F. Burr, "Reevaluation of X-Ray Atomic Energy Levels," Rev. Mod. Phys., 1967, 39, 125.
  2. M. Cardona and L. Ley, Eds., Photoemission in Solids I: General Principles (Springer-Verlag, Berlin) with additional corrections, 1978.
  3. Gwyn Williams WWW table of values
  4. D.R. Lide, (Ed.) in Chemical Rubber Company handbook of chemistry and physics, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 81st edition, 2000.
  5. J. C. Fuggle and N. Mårtensson, "Core-Level Binding Energies in Metals," J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 1980, 21, 275.