โ–ธโ–ธ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง Francium
  • ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ณ ้ˆ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฑ Francium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท Francium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช Francium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฑ ืคืจื ืกื™ื•ื
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡น Francio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ต ใƒ•ใƒฉใƒณใ‚ทใ‚ฆใƒ 
  • ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡น Frâncio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡บ ะคั€ะฐะฝั†ะธะน
  • ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Francio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ช Francium

Francium: properties of free atoms

Francium atoms have 87 electrons and the shell structure is  2.8.18.32.18.8.1.

The ground state electron configuration of ground state gaseous neutral francium is  [Rn].7s1 and the term symbol is  2S1/2.

Kossel shell structure of francium
Schematic electronic configuration of francium.
Kossel shell structure of francium
The Kossel shell structure of francium.

Atomic spectrum

 

A representation of the atomic spectrum of francium.

Ionisation Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of francium is (no data) kJ mol‑1. The ionisation energies of francium are given below.

Ionisation energies of francium
Ionisation energy number Enthalpy / kJ mol‑1
1st392.96
2nd2160
3rd3230
4th3770
5th4820
6th6460
7th7720
8th10200
9th11600
10th17300
11th19300
12th21400 (calculated)
13th23600
14th26000
15th28300
16th31300
17th33700
18th36200
19th38600
20th51100
21st54000
Ionisation energies of francium
Ionisation energies of francium.

Effective Nuclear Charges

The following are "Clementi-Raimondi" effective nuclear charges, Zeff. Follow the hyperlinks for more details and for graphs in various formats.

Effective nuclear charges for francium
1s(no data)  
2s(no data) 2p(no data)  
3s(no data) 3p(no data) 3d(no data)  
4s(no data) 4p(no data) 4d(no data) 4f(no data)
5s(no data) 5p(no data) 5d(no data)  
6s(no data) 6p(no data)  
7s   

References

These effective nuclear charges, Zeff, are adapted from the following references:

  1. E. Clementi and D.L.Raimondi, J. Chem. Phys. 1963, 38, 2686.
  2. E. Clementi, D.L.Raimondi, and W.P. Reinhardt, J. Chem. Phys. 1967, 47, 1300.

Electron binding energies

Electron binding energies for francium. All values of electron binding energies are given in eV. The binding energies are quoted relative to the vacuum level for rare gases and H2, N2, O2, F2, and Cl2 molecules; relative to the Fermi level for metals; and relative to the top of the valence band for semiconductors.
Label Orbital eV [literature reference]
K 1s101137 [1]
L I2s18639 [1]
L II2p1/217907 [1]
L III2p3/215031 [1]
M I3s4652 [1]
M II3p1/24327 [1]
M III3p3/23663 [1]
M IV3d3/23136 [1]
M V3d5/23000 [1]
N I4s1153 [2]
N II4p1/2980 [2]
N III4p3/2810 [2]
N IV4d3/2603 [2]
N V4d5/2577 [2]
N VI4f5/2268 [2]
N VII4f7/2268 [2]
O I5s234 [2]
O II5p1/2182 [2]
O III5p3/2140 [2]
O IV5d3/258 [2]
O V5d5/258 [2]
P I6s34 [1]
P II6p1/215 [1]
P III6p3/215 [1]

Notes

I am grateful to Gwyn Williams (Jefferson Laboratory, Virginia, USA) who provided the electron binding energy data. The data are adapted from references 1-3. They are tabulated elsewhere on the WWW (reference 4) and in paper form (reference 5).

References

  1. J. A. Bearden and A. F. Burr, "Reevaluation of X-Ray Atomic Energy Levels," Rev. Mod. Phys., 1967, 39, 125.
  2. M. Cardona and L. Ley, Eds., Photoemission in Solids I: General Principles (Springer-Verlag, Berlin) with additional corrections, 1978.
  3. Gwyn Williams WWW table of values
  4. D.R. Lide, (Ed.) in Chemical Rubber Company handbook of chemistry and physics, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 81st edition, 2000.
  5. J. C. Fuggle and N. Mårtensson, "Core-Level Binding Energies in Metals," J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 1980, 21, 275.