โ–ธโ–ธ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง Scandium
  • ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ณ ้ˆง
  • ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฑ Scandium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท Scandium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช Scandium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฑ ืกืงื ื“ื™ื•ื
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡น Scandio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ต ใ‚นใ‚ซใƒณใ‚ธใ‚ฆใƒ 
  • ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡น Escândio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡บ ะกะบะฐะฝะดะธะน
  • ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Escandio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ช Skandium

Scandium: properties of free atoms

Scandium atoms have 21 electrons and the shell structure is  2.8.9.2.

The ground state electron configuration of ground state gaseous neutral scandium is  [Ar].3d1.4s2 and the term symbol is  2D3/2.

Kossel shell structure of scandium
Schematic electronic configuration of scandium.
Kossel shell structure of scandium
The Kossel shell structure of scandium.

Atomic spectrum

 

A representation of the atomic spectrum of scandium.

Ionisation Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of scandium is 18.1 kJ mol‑1. The ionisation energies of scandium are given below.

Ionisation energies of scandium
Ionisation energy number Enthalpy / kJ mol‑1
1st633.09
2nd1234.99
3rd2388.67
4th7090.6
5th8870
6th10680
7th13310
8th15250
9th17370
10th21730
11th24100
12th66320
13th73110
14th80390
15th89390
16th97320
17th106000
18th117000
19th124269
20th547545
21st582169
Ionisation energies of scandium
Ionisation energies of scandium.

Effective Nuclear Charges

The following are "Clementi-Raimondi" effective nuclear charges, Zeff. Follow the hyperlinks for more details and for graphs in various formats.

Effective nuclear charges for scandium
1s20.4566  
2s14.57 2p17.05  
3s10.34 3p9.41 3d7.12  
4s4.63 4p(no data) 4d(no data) 4f(no data)
5s(no data) 5p(no data) 5d(no data)  
6s(no data) 6p(no data)  
7s   

References

These effective nuclear charges, Zeff, are adapted from the following references:

  1. E. Clementi and D.L.Raimondi, J. Chem. Phys. 1963, 38, 2686.
  2. E. Clementi, D.L.Raimondi, and W.P. Reinhardt, J. Chem. Phys. 1967, 47, 1300.

Electron binding energies

Electron binding energies for scandium. All values of electron binding energies are given in eV. The binding energies are quoted relative to the vacuum level for rare gases and H2, N2, O2, F2, and Cl2 molecules; relative to the Fermi level for metals; and relative to the top of the valence band for semiconductors.
Label Orbital eV [literature reference]
K 1s4492 [1]
L I2s498 [2]
L II2p1/2403.6 [2]
L III2p3/2398.7 [2]
M I3s51.1 [2]
M II3p1/228.3 [2]
M III3p3/228.3 [2]

Notes

I am grateful to Gwyn Williams (Jefferson Laboratory, Virginia, USA) who provided the electron binding energy data. The data are adapted from references 1-3. They are tabulated elsewhere on the WWW (reference 4) and in paper form (reference 5).

References

  1. J. A. Bearden and A. F. Burr, "Reevaluation of X-Ray Atomic Energy Levels," Rev. Mod. Phys., 1967, 39, 125.
  2. M. Cardona and L. Ley, Eds., Photoemission in Solids I: General Principles (Springer-Verlag, Berlin) with additional corrections, 1978.
  3. Gwyn Williams WWW table of values
  4. D.R. Lide, (Ed.) in Chemical Rubber Company handbook of chemistry and physics, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 81st edition, 2000.
  5. J. C. Fuggle and N. Mårtensson, "Core-Level Binding Energies in Metals," J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 1980, 21, 275.