โ–ธโ–ธ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง Fluorine
  • ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ณ ๆฐŸ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฑ Fluor
  • ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท Fluor
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช Fluor
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฑ ืคืœื•ืื•ืจ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡น Fluoro
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ต ใƒ•ใƒƒ็ด 
  • ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡น Flúor
  • ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡บ ะคั‚ะพั€
  • ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Flúor
  • ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ช Fluor

Fluorine: properties of free atoms

Fluorine atoms have 9 electrons and the shell structure is  2.7.

The ground state electron configuration of ground state gaseous neutral fluorine is  [He].2s2.2p5 and the term symbol is  2P3/2.

Kossel shell structure of fluorine
Schematic electronic configuration of fluorine.
Kossel shell structure of fluorine
The Kossel shell structure of fluorine.

Atomic spectrum

 

A representation of the atomic spectrum of fluorine.

Ionisation Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of fluorine is 328 kJ mol‑1. The ionisation energies of fluorine are given below.

Ionisation energies of fluorine
Ionisation energy number Enthalpy / kJ mol‑1
1st1681.05
2nd3374.17
3rd6050.40
4th8411.11
5th11023.3
6th15163.9
7th17867.8
8th92037.1
9th106435
Ionisation energies of fluorine
Ionisation energies of fluorine.

Effective Nuclear Charges

The following are "Clementi-Raimondi" effective nuclear charges, Zeff. Follow the hyperlinks for more details and for graphs in various formats.

Effective nuclear charges for fluorine
1s8.6501  
2s5.13 2p5.10  
3s(no data) 3p(no data) 3d(no data)  
4s(no data) 4p(no data) 4d(no data) 4f(no data)
5s(no data) 5p(no data) 5d(no data)  
6s(no data) 6p(no data)  
7s   

References

These effective nuclear charges, Zeff, are adapted from the following references:

  1. E. Clementi and D.L.Raimondi, J. Chem. Phys. 1963, 38, 2686.
  2. E. Clementi, D.L.Raimondi, and W.P. Reinhardt, J. Chem. Phys. 1967, 47, 1300.

Electron binding energies

Electron binding energies for fluorine. All values of electron binding energies are given in eV. The binding energies are quoted relative to the vacuum level for rare gases and H2, N2, O2, F2, and Cl2 molecules; relative to the Fermi level for metals; and relative to the top of the valence band for semiconductors.
Label Orbital eV [literature reference]
K 1s696.7 [2]

Notes

I am grateful to Gwyn Williams (Jefferson Laboratory, Virginia, USA) who provided the electron binding energy data. The data are adapted from references 1-3. They are tabulated elsewhere on the WWW (reference 4) and in paper form (reference 5).

References

  1. J. A. Bearden and A. F. Burr, "Reevaluation of X-Ray Atomic Energy Levels," Rev. Mod. Phys., 1967, 39, 125.
  2. M. Cardona and L. Ley, Eds., Photoemission in Solids I: General Principles (Springer-Verlag, Berlin) with additional corrections, 1978.
  3. Gwyn Williams WWW table of values
  4. D.R. Lide, (Ed.) in Chemical Rubber Company handbook of chemistry and physics, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 81st edition, 2000.
  5. J. C. Fuggle and N. Mårtensson, "Core-Level Binding Energies in Metals," J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 1980, 21, 275.