โ–ธโ–ธ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง Fluorine
  • ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ณ ๆฐŸ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฑ Fluor
  • ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท Fluor
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช Fluor
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฑ ืคืœื•ืื•ืจ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡น Fluoro
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ต ใƒ•ใƒƒ็ด 
  • ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡น Flúor
  • ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡บ ะคั‚ะพั€
  • ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Flúor
  • ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ช Fluor

Fluorine: the essentials

Fluorine atoms have 9 electrons and the shell structure is 2.7. The ground state electronic configuration of neutral fluorine is [He].2s2.2p5 and the term symbol of fluorine is 2P3/2.

Fluorine: description  

Fluorine is a Group 17 element. Fluorine is the most electronegative and reactive of all elements. It is a pale yellow, corrosive gas, which reacts with practically all organic and inorganic substances. Finely divided metals, glass, ceramics, carbon, and even water burn in fluorine with a bright flame. It is not uncommon to see fluorine spelled incorrectly as flourine.

Until World War 2, there was no commercial production of elemental fluorine. Atom bomb projects and nuclear energy applications made it necessary to produce large quantities of fluorine since isotopes of uranium can be separated through the gas diffusion of UF6. Reasonably safe handling techniques for fluorine are now available and one can transport liquid fluorine by the ton. Compounds of fluorine with noble gases such as xenon, radon, and krypton are known. Elemental fluorine and the fluoride ion (in quantity) are highly toxic.

Science and Ink cartoon for fluorine
Cartoon by Nick D Kim ([Science and Ink], used by permission).

Fluorine: physical properties

More physical properties...

Fluorine: heat properties

More thermochemical properties...

Fluorine: electronegativities

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Fluorine: orbital properties

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Fluorine: abundances

More geological data...

Fluorine: crystal structure

F crystal structure
The solid state structure of fluorine is: bcc (body-centred cubic).

More crystallographic data...

Fluorine: biological data

Fluorine as fluoride (F-) is probably an essential element for humans and certainly is for some molluscs. In some areas, fluoride ion is added to drinking water (in very low concentrations) since it renders tooth enamel relatively immune to bacteriological attack. It does this by replacing the OH group of hydroxyapatite with fluoride. In other areas, fluoride is not added to water, despite the benefits, as a consequence of protests from civil rights activists who object to the addition of anything to water.

More biological data...

Fluorine: uses

Uses...

Fluorine: reactions

Reactions of fluorine as the element with air, water, halogens, acids, and bases where known.

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Fluorine: binary compounds

Binary compounds with halogens (known as halides), oxygen (known as oxides), hydrogen (known as hydrides), and other compounds of fluorine where known.

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Fluorine: compound properties

Bond strengths; lattice energies of fluorine halides, hydrides, oxides (where known); and reduction potentials where known.

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Fluorine: history

Fluorine was discovered by Henri Moissan in 1886 at France. Origin of name: from the Latin word "fluere" meaning "to flow".

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Fluorine: isotopes

Isotope abundances of fluorine
Isotope abundances of fluorine with the most intense signal set to 100%.

More isotope and NMR data...

Fluorine: isolation

Isolation: it would never be necessary to make fluorine gas in most laboratories. Fluorine is available commercially in cylinders but is very difficult to handle. Fluorine may be recovered with difficulty as a highly reactive and corrosive pale yellow gas by electrolysis of hot molten mixtures (1:2) of potassium fluoride (KF) and hydrogen fluoride (HF). The electrolyte is corrosive, so is the product. Grease must be avoided because of the fire hazard. It is difficult to store as it reacts with most materials but steel and Monel metal containers may be used as the metal surfaces deactivate through the formation of unreactive surface fluorides.