Yttrium: the essentials
Yttrium has a silvery-metallic lustre. Yttrium turnings ignite in air. Yttrium is found in most rare-earth minerals. Moon rocks contain yttrium and yttrium is used as a "phosphor" to produce the red colour in television screens.
This sample is from The Elements Collection, an attractive and safely packaged collection of the 92 naturally occurring elements that is available for sale.
Yttrium: historical information
Yttria (yttrium oxide, Y2O3), was discovered by Johann Gadolin in 1794 in a mineral called gadolinite from Ytterby. Ytterby is the site of a quarry in Sweden which contains many unusual minerals containing erbium, terbium, and ytterbium as well as yttrium. Friedrich Wohler obtained the impure element in 1828 by reduction of the anhydrous chloride (YCl3) with potassium.
Yttrium around us Read more »
Yttrium has no biological role.
Yttrium is never found in nature as the free element. Yttrium is found in the ores monazite sand [(Ce, La, etc.)PO4] and bastn°site [(Ce, La, etc.)(CO3)F], ores containing small amounts of all the rare earth metals, as well as in some other ores. It is difficult to separate from other rare earth elements. Lunar rock samples show a relatively high yttrium content.
|Location||ppb by weight||ppb by atoms||Links|
|Human||(no data) ppb by weight||(no data) atoms relative to C = 1000000|
Physical properties Read more »
Heat properties Read more »
- Melting point: 1799 [1526 °C (2779 °F)] K
- Boiling point: 3609 [3336 °C (6037 °F)] K
- Enthalpy of fusion: 11.4 kJ mol-1
Crystal structure Read more »
The solid state structure of yttrium is: hcp (hexagonal close-packed).
Yttrium: orbital properties Read more »
Yttrium atoms have 39 electrons and the shell structure is 22.214.171.124.2. The ground state electronic configuration of neutral Yttrium is [Kr].4d1.5s2 and the term symbol of Yttrium is 2D3/2.
- Pauling electronegativity: 1.22 (Pauling units)
- First ionisation energy: 600 kJ mol‑1
- Second ionisation energy: 1180 kJ mol‑1
Isolation: yttrium metal is available commercially so it is not normally necesary to make it in the laboratory. Yttrium is found in lathanoid minerals and the extraction of the yttrium and the lanthanoid metals from the ores is highly complex. Initially, the metals are extractedas salts from the ores by extraction with sulphuric acid (H2SO4), hydrochloric acid (HCl), and sodium hydroxide (NaOH). Modern purification techniques for these lanthanoid salt mixtures involve selective complexation techniques, solvent extractions, and ion exchange chromatography.
Pure yttrium is available through the reduction of YF3 with calcium metal.
2YF3 + 3Ca → 2Y + 3CaF2
Yttrium isotopes Read more »