โ–ธโ–ธ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง Beryllium
  • ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ณ ้ˆน
  • ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฑ Beryllium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท Béryllium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช Beryllium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฑ ื‘ืจื™ืœื™ื•ื
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡น Berillio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ต ใƒ™ใƒชใƒชใ‚ฆใƒ 
  • ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡น Berílio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡บ ะ‘ะตั€ะธะปะปะธะน
  • ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Berilio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ช Beryllium

Beryllium: the essentials

Beryllium atoms have 4 electrons and the shell structure is 2.2. The ground state electronic configuration of neutral beryllium is [He].2s2 and the term symbol of beryllium is 1S0.

Beryllium: description  

Beryllium is a Group 2 (IIA) element. It is a metal and has a high melting point. At ordinary temperatures, beryllium resists oxidation in air. Beryllium compounds are very toxic. Its ability to scratch glass is probably due to the formation of a thin layer of the oxide. Aquamarine and emerald are precious forms of the mineral beryl, [Be3Al2(SiO3)6].

Its chemistry is dominated by its tendency to lose an electron to form Be2+. As this ion is so small it is highly polarising, to the extent that its compounds are rather covalent. Its small size means that its complexes tend to be tetrahedral rahter than octahedral.

Beryllium: physical properties

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Beryllium: heat properties

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Beryllium: atom sizes

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Beryllium: electronegativities

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Beryllium: orbital properties

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Beryllium: abundances

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Beryllium: crystal structure

Be crystal structure
The solid state structure of beryllium is: bcc (body-centred cubic).

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Beryllium: biological data

Beryllium has no biological role. In fact, compounds containing beryllium are poisonous.

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Beryllium: uses

Uses...

Beryllium: reactions

Reactions of beryllium as the element with air, water, halogens, acids, and bases where known.

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Beryllium: binary compounds

Binary compounds with halogens (known as halides), oxygen (known as oxides), hydrogen (known as hydrides), and other compounds of beryllium where known.

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Beryllium: compound properties

Bond strengths; lattice energies of beryllium halides, hydrides, oxides (where known); and reduction potentials where known.

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Beryllium: history

Beryllium was discovered by Nicholas Louis Vauquelin (1763-1829) in 1797 at France. Origin of name: from the Greek word "beryllos" meaning "beryl".

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Beryllium: isotopes

Isotope abundances of beryllium
Isotope abundances of beryllium with the most intense signal set to 100%.

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Beryllium: isolation

Isolation: beryllium metal is available commercially and so would never normally be made in the laboratory. Its extraction from ores is complex. The mineral beryl, [Be3Al2(SiO3)6] is the most important source of beryllium. It is roasted with sodimu hexafluorosilicate, Na2SiF6, at 700°C to form beryllium fluoride. This is water soluble and the beryllium may be precipitated as the hydroxide Be(OH)2 by adjustment of the pH to 12.

Pure beryllium may be obtained by electrolysis of molten BeCl2 containing some NaCl. The salt is added since the molten BeCl2 conducts very poorly. Another method involves the reduction of beryllium fluoride with magnesium at 1300°C.

BeF2 + Mg → MgF2 + Be