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  • ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง Neodymium
  • ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ณ ้‡น
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  • ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท Néodyme
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  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡น Neodimio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ต ใƒใ‚ชใ‚ธใƒ 
  • ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡น Neodímio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡บ ะะตะพะดะธะผ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Neodimio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ช Neodym

Neodymium: the essentials

Neodymium atoms have 60 electrons and the shell structure is 2.8.18.22.8.2. The ground state electronic configuration of neutral neodymium is [Xe].4f4.6s2 and the term symbol of neodymium is 5I4.

Neodymium: description  

Neodymium is present in misch metal to the extent of about 18%. The metal has a bright silvery metallic lustre. Neodymium is one of the more reactive rare-earth metals and quickly tarnishes in air, forming an oxide that spalls off and exposes the metal to further oxidation. It is one of the rare earth metals.

neodymium
This sample is from The Elements Collection, an attractive and safely packaged collection of the 92 naturally occurring elements that is available for sale.

Neodymium: physical properties

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Neodymium: heat properties

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Neodymium: atom sizes

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Neodymium: electronegativities

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Neodymium: orbital properties

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Neodymium: abundances

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Neodymium: crystal structure

Nd crystal structure
The solid state structure of neodymium is: bcc (body-centred cubic).

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Neodymium: biological data

Neodymium has no biological role.

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Neodymium: uses

Uses...

Neodymium: reactions

Reactions of neodymium as the element with air, water, halogens, acids, and bases where known.

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Neodymium: binary compounds

Binary compounds with halogens (known as halides), oxygen (known as oxides), hydrogen (known as hydrides), and other compounds of neodymium where known.

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Neodymium: compound properties

Bond strengths; lattice energies of neodymium halides, hydrides, oxides (where known); and reduction potentials where known.

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Neodymium: history

Neodymium was discovered by Carl F. Auer von Welsbach in 1885 at Austria. Origin of name: from the Greek words "neos didymos" meaning "new twin".

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Neodymium: isotopes

Isotope abundances of neodymium
Isotope abundances of neodymium with the most intense signal set to 100%.

Neodymium isotopes are used in a variety of scientific applications. Nd-142 has been used for the production of short-lived Tm and Yb isotopes. Nd-146 has been suggested for the production of Pm-147 which can be used as a source for radioisotopic power generation. Several Nd isotopes have been used for the production of other Pm isotopes. Finally, Nd-150 has been used to study double beta decay.

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Neodymium: isolation

Isolation: neodymium metal is available commercially so it is not normally necessary to make it in the laboratory, which is just as well as it is difficult to isolate as the pure metal. This is largely because of the way it is found in nature. The lanthanoids are found in nature in a number of minerals. The most important are xenotime, monazite, and bastnaesite. The first two are orthophosphate minerals LnPO4 (Ln deonotes a mixture of all the lanthanoids except promethium which is vanishingly rare) and the third is a fluoride carbonate LnCO3F. Lanthanoids with even atomic numbers are more common. The most comon lanthanoids in these minerals are, in order, cerium, lanthanum, neodymium, and praseodymium. Monazite also contains thorium and ytrrium which makes handling difficult since thorium and its decomposition products are radioactive.

For many purposes it is not particularly necessary to separate the metals, but if separation into individual metals is required, the process is complex. Initially, the metals are extracted as salts from the ores by extraction with sulphuric acid (H2SO4), hydrochloric acid (HCl), and sodium hydroxide (NaOH). Modern purification techniques for these lanthanoid salt mixtures are ingenious and involve selective complexation techniques, solvent extractions, and ion exchange chromatography.

Pure neodymium is available through the reduction of NdF3 with calcium metal.

2NdF3 + 3Ca → 2Nd + 3CaF2

This would work for the other calcium halides as well but the product CaF2 is easier to handle under the reaction conditions (heat to 50°C above the melting point of the element in an argon atmosphere). Excess calcium is removed from the reaction mixture under vacuum.