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  • ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง Aluminium
  • ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ณ ้‹
  • ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฑ Aluminium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท Aluminium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช Aluminium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฑ ืืœื•ืžื™ื ื™ื•ื
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡น Alluminio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ต ใ‚ขใƒซใƒŸใƒ‹ใ‚ฆใƒ 
  • ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡น Alumínio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡บ ะะปัŽะผะธะฝะธะน
  • ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Aluminio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ช Aluminium

Aluminium: the essentials

Aluminium atoms have 13 electrons and the shell structure is 2.8.3. The ground state electronic configuration of neutral aluminium is [Ne].3s2.3p1 and the term symbol of aluminium is 2P1/2.

Aluminium: description  

Pure aluminium is a silvery-white metal with many desirable characteristics. It is light, nontoxic (as the metal), nonmagnetic and nonsparking. It is somewhat decorative. It is easily formed, machined, and cast. Pure aluminium is soft and lacks strength, but alloys with small amounts of copper, magnesium, silicon, manganese, and other elements have very useful properties. Aluminium is an abundant element in the earth's crust, but it is not found free in nature. The Bayer process is used to refine aluminium from bauxite, an aluminium ore.

aluminium metal

Aluminium: physical properties

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Aluminium: heat properties

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Aluminium: atom sizes

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Aluminium: electronegativities

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Aluminium: orbital properties

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Aluminium: abundances

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Aluminium: crystal structure

Al crystal structure
The solid state structure of aluminium is: bcc (body-centred cubic).

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Aluminium: biological data

Aluminium may be involved in the action of enzymes such a succinic dehydrogenase and δ-aminolevulinate dehydrase (involved in porphyrin synthesis. Aluminium compounds are toxic to most plants and somewhat toxic to mammals. Aluminium has been linked to Alzheimer's disease (senile dementia).

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Aluminium: uses

Uses...

Aluminium: reactions

Reactions of aluminium as the element with air, water, halogens, acids, and bases where known.

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Aluminium: binary compounds

Binary compounds with halogens (known as halides), oxygen (known as oxides), hydrogen (known as hydrides), and other compounds of aluminium where known.

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Aluminium: compound properties

Bond strengths; lattice energies of aluminium halides, hydrides, oxides (where known); and reduction potentials where known.

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Aluminium: history

Aluminium was discovered by Hans Christian Oersted in 1825 at Denmark. Origin of name: from the Latin word "alumen" meaning "alum".

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Aluminium: isotopes

Isotope abundances of aluminium
Isotope abundances of aluminium with the most intense signal set to 100%.

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Aluminium: isolation

Isolation: aluminium would not mormally be made in the laboratory as it is so readily available commercially.

Aluminium is mined in huge scales as bauxite (typically Al2O3.2H2O). Bauxite contains Fe2O3, SiO2, and other impurities. In order to isolate pure aluminium, these impurities must be removed from the bauxite. This is done by the Bayer process. This involves treatment with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution, which results in a solution of sodium aluminate and sodium silicate. The iron remains behind as a solid. When CO2 is blown through the resulting solution, the sodium silicate stays in solution while the aluminium is precipitated out as aluminium hydroxide. The hydroxide can be filtered off, washed, and heated to form pure alumina, Al2O3.

The next stage is formation of pure aluminium. This is obtained from the pure Al2O3 by an electrolytic method. Electrolysis is necessary as aluminium is so electropositive. It seems these days that electrolysis of the hot oxide in a carbon lined steel cell acting as the cathode with carbon anodes is most common.