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  • ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ช Rodium

Rhodium: the essentials

Rhodium atoms have 45 electrons and the shell structure is 2.8.18.16.1. The ground state electronic configuration of neutral rhodium is [Kr].4d85s1 and the term symbol of rhodium is 4F9/2.

Rhodium: description  

Rhodium metal is silvery white. Rhodium has a higher melting point and lower density than platinum. It has a high reflectance and is hard and durable. Upon heating it turns to the oxide when red and at higher temperatures turns back to the element. It is a major component of industrial catalytic systems such as the BP-Monsanto process.

Ruthenium, rhodium, palladium, osmium, iridium, and platinum together make up a group of elements referred to as the platinum group metals (PGM).

rhodium wire
Rhodium wire.

Rhodium: physical properties

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Rhodium: heat properties

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Rhodium: electronegativities

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Rhodium: orbital properties

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Rhodium: abundances

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Rhodium: crystal structure

Rh crystal structure
The solid state structure of rhodium is: bcc (body-centred cubic).

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Rhodium: biological data

Rhodium has no biological role.

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Rhodium: uses

Uses...

Rhodium: reactions

Reactions of rhodium as the element with air, water, halogens, acids, and bases where known.

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Rhodium: binary compounds

Binary compounds with halogens (known as halides), oxygen (known as oxides), hydrogen (known as hydrides), and other compounds of rhodium where known.

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Rhodium: compound properties

Bond strengths; lattice energies of rhodium halides, hydrides, oxides (where known); and reduction potentials where known.

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Rhodium: history

Rhodium was discovered by William Hyde Wollaston in 1803 at England. Origin of name: from the Greek word "rhodon" meaning "rose".

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Rhodium: isotopes

Isotope abundances of rhodium
Isotope abundances of rhodium with the most intense signal set to 100%.

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Rhodium: isolation

Isolation: it would not normally be necessary to make a sample of rhodium in the laboratory as the metal is available, at a price, commercially. The industrial extraction of rhodium is complex as the metal occurs in ores mixed with other metals such as palladium, silver, platinum, and gold. Sometimes extraction of the precious metals such as rhodium, platinum and palladium is the main focus of a partiular industrial operation while in other cases it is a byproduct. The extraction is complex because of the other metals present and only worthwhile since rhodium is the basis of very important catalysts in industry.

Preliminary treatment of the ore or base metal byproduct is required to remove silver, gold, palladium, and platinum. The resulting residue is melted with sodium bisulphate (NaHSO4) and the resulting mixture extracted water to give a solution containing rhodium sulphate, Rh2(SO4)3. The rhodium is precipitated out as the hydroxide by addition of sodium hydroxide, NaOH, and redissolved in hydrochloric acid, HCl, to give H3RhCl6. This is treated with NaNO2 and NH4Cl to form a precipitate of the rhodium complex (NH4)3[Rh(NO2)6]. Dissolution of the precipitate in HCl gives a solution of pure (NH4)3RhCl6. Evaporation to dryness and burning under hydrogen gas gives pure rhodium.