โ–ธโ–ธ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง Boron
  • ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ณ ็กผ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฑ Boor
  • ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท Bore
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช Bor
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฑ ื‘ื•ืจ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡น Boro
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ต ใƒ›ใ‚ฆ็ด 
  • ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡น Boro
  • ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡บ ะ‘ะพั€
  • ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Boro
  • ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ช Bor

Boron: the essentials

Boron atoms have 5 electrons and the shell structure is 2.3. The ground state electronic configuration of neutral boron is [He].2s2.2p1 and the term symbol of boron is 2P1/2.

Boron: description  

Boron is a Group 13 element that has properties which are borderline between metals and non-metals (semimetallic). It is a semiconductor rather than a metallic conductor. Chemically it is closer to silicon than to aluminium, gallium, indium, and thallium.

Crystalline boron is inert chemically and is resistant to attack by boiling HF or HCl. When finely divided it is attacked slowly by hot concentrated nitric acid.

boron
Image adapted with permission from Prof James Marshall's (U. North Texas, USA) Walking Tour of the elements CD.

Boron: physical properties

More physical properties...

Boron: heat properties

More thermochemical properties...

Boron: electronegativities

More electronegativity properties...

Boron: orbital properties

More orbital properties...

Boron: abundances

More geological data...

Boron: crystal structure

B crystal structure
The solid state structure of boron is: bcc (body-centred cubic).

More crystallographic data...

Boron: biological data

Boron is probably not required in the diet of humans but it might be a necessary "ultratrace" element. Boron is required by green algae and higher plants.

More biological data...

Boron: uses

Uses...

Boron: reactions

Reactions of boron as the element with air, water, halogens, acids, and bases where known.

View reactions of boron...

Boron: binary compounds

Binary compounds with halogens (known as halides), oxygen (known as oxides), hydrogen (known as hydrides), and other compounds of boron where known.

View binary compounds...

Boron: compound properties

Bond strengths; lattice energies of boron halides, hydrides, oxides (where known); and reduction potentials where known.

View compound properties...

Boron: history

Boron was discovered by Sir Humphrey Davy, Joseph-Louis Gay-Lussac, L.J. Thénard in 1808 at England and France. Origin of name: from the Arabic word "buraq" and the Persian word "burah" .

More history...

Boron: isotopes

Isotope abundances of boron
Isotope abundances of boron with the most intense signal set to 100%.

Both isotopes of Boron, B-10 and B-11, are used extensively in the nuclear industry. B-10 is used in the form of boric acid as a chemical shim in pressurized water reactors while in the form of sodium pentaborate it is used for standby liquid control systems in boiling water reactors. B-11 can be used as a neutron reflector. Outside the nuclear industry both isotopes are used as food label to study boron metabolism. B-10 is also used in so-called boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). Both B-10 and B-11 can be used for the production of two radioisotopes: C-11 and N-13.

More isotope and NMR data...

Boron: isolation

Isolation: it is not normally necessary to make boron in the laboratory and it would normally be purchased as it is available commercially. The most common sources of boron are tourmaline, borax [Na2B4O5(OH)4.8H2O], and kernite [Na2B4O5(OH)4.2H2O]. It is difficult to obtain pure. It can be made through the magnesium reduction of the oxide, B2O3. The oxide is made by melting boric acid, B(OH)3, which in turn is obtained from borax.

B2O3 + 3Mg → 2B + 3MgO

Samm amounts of high purity boron are available through the thermal decomposition of compounds such as BBr3 with hydrogen gas using a heated tantalum wire. Results are better with hot wires at tmeperatures over 1000°C.