โ–ธโ–ธ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง Lead
  • ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ณ ้‰›
  • ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฑ Lood
  • ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท Plomb
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช Blei
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฑ ืขื•ืคืจืช
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡น Piombo
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ต ้‰›
  • ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡น Conduzir
  • ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡บ ะกะฒะธะฝะตั†
  • ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Plomo
  • ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ช Bly

Lead: the essentials

Lead atoms have 82 electrons and the shell structure is 2.8.18.32.18.4. The ground state electronic configuration of neutral lead is [Xe].4f14.5d10.6s2.6p2 and the term symbol of lead is 3P0.

Lead: description  

Lead is a bluish-white lustrous metal. It is very soft, highly malleable, ductile, and a relatively poor conductor of electricity. It is very resistant to corrosion but tarnishes upon exposure to air. Lead pipes bearing the insignia of Roman emperors, used as drains from the baths, are still in service. Alloys include pewter and solder. Tetraethyl lead (PbEt4) is still used in some grades of petrol (gasoline) but is being phased out on environmental grounds.

Lead isotopes are the end products of each of the three series of naturally occurring radioactive elements.

lead bar in Cluedo

Science and Ink cartoon for lead
Cartoon by Nick D Kim ([Science and Ink], used by permission).

Lead: physical properties

More physical properties...

Lead: heat properties

More thermochemical properties...

Lead: electronegativities

More electronegativity properties...

Lead: orbital properties

More orbital properties...

Lead: abundances

More geological data...

Lead: crystal structure

Pb crystal structure
The solid state structure of lead is: bcc (body-centred cubic).

More crystallographic data...

Lead: biological data

Lead has no biological role. Lead affects the gut, central nervous system and causes anaemia.

More biological data...

Lead: uses

Uses...

Lead: reactions

Reactions of lead as the element with air, water, halogens, acids, and bases where known.

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Lead: binary compounds

Binary compounds with halogens (known as halides), oxygen (known as oxides), hydrogen (known as hydrides), and other compounds of lead where known.

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Lead: compound properties

Bond strengths; lattice energies of lead halides, hydrides, oxides (where known); and reduction potentials where known.

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Lead: history

Lead was discovered by known since ancient times in unknown at not known. Origin of name: from the Anglo-Saxon word "lead; Latin, plumbum" (the origin of the symbol Pb is the Latin word "plumbum" meaning "liquid silver".

More history...

Lead: isotopes

Isotope abundances of lead
Isotope abundances of lead with the most intense signal set to 100%.

Lead isotopes are used for medical and scientific purposes. Pb-206 and Pb-207 can both be used to produce the medical radioisotopes Bi-205 and Bi-206. Pb-204, Pb-206 and Pb-207 are used to measure lead levels in blood. Pb-208 has been used to produce neutron-rich isotopes of W and Lu. Pb-208 has also been used to study the configuration of neutron stars. Several Lead isotopes have also been used as target in the production of super heavy elements.

More isotope and NMR data...

Lead: isolation

Isolation: there is usually little need to make lead metal in the laboratory as it is so cheap and readily available. Lead is isolated from the sulphide, PbS. The process involves burning in a restricted air flow followed by reduction of the resulting oxide PbO with carbon.

PbS + 3/2O2 → PbO + SO2

PbO + C → Pb + CO

PbO + CO → Pb + CO2

This gives lead usually contaminated with metals such as antimony, arsenic, copper, gold, silver, tin, and zinc. A fairly complex process is used to strip out these impurities.