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  • ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง Roentgenium
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  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฑ ืจื ื˜ื’ื ื™ื•ื
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  • ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Roentgenio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ช Roentgenium

Roentgenium: the essentials

Roentgenium atoms have 111 electrons and the shell structure is 2.8.18.32.32.18.1. The ground state electronic configuration of neutral roentgenium is [Rn].5f14.6d10.7s1 (a guess based upon that of gold) and the term symbol of roentgenium is 2S1/2 (a guess based upon guessed electronic structure).

Roentgenium: description  

Roentgenium, was discovered on 8th December 1994 at the GSI in Darmstadt, Germany. The interested reader should consult the on-line version of Creating Super Heavy Elements for a fascinating insight into research on "super-heavy" atoms.

Chemically, roentgenium should be in the same group as the elements copper, silver, and gold (Group 11).

Roentgenium: physical properties

More physical properties...

Roentgenium: heat properties

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Roentgenium: atom sizes

More atomc size properties...

Roentgenium: electronegativities

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Roentgenium: orbital properties

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Roentgenium: abundances

More geological data...

Roentgenium: crystal structure

Rg crystal structure
The solid state structure of roentgenium is: bcc (body-centred cubic).

More crystallographic data...

Roentgenium: biological data

Element 111, roentgenium, has no biological role.

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Roentgenium: uses

Uses...

Roentgenium: reactions

Reactions of roentgenium as the element with air, water, halogens, acids, and bases where known.

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Roentgenium: binary compounds

Binary compounds with halogens (known as halides), oxygen (known as oxides), hydrogen (known as hydrides), and other compounds of roentgenium where known.

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Roentgenium: compound properties

Bond strengths; lattice energies of roentgenium halides, hydrides, oxides (where known); and reduction potentials where known.

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Roentgenium: history

Roentgenium was discovered by S. Hofmann, V. Ninov, F. P. Hessberger, P. Armbruster, H. Folger, G. Münzenberg, and others in 1994 at Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung (GSI) in Darmstadt, Germany.. Origin of name: the proposed name roentgenium has yet ot be accepted formally, but lies within the long established tradition of naming elements to honour famous scientists. Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen discovered X-rays in 1895.

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Roentgenium: isotopes

Isotope abundances of roentgenium
Isotope abundances of roentgenium with the most intense signal set to 100%.

More isotope and NMR data...

Roentgenium: isolation

Isolation: only a few atoms of element 111, roentgenium, have ever been made through a nuclear reaction involving fusion of an isotope of bismuth, 209Bi, with one of nickel, 64Ni.

209Bi + 64Ni → 272Rg + 1n

Isolation of an observable quantity has never been achieved, and may well never be.