Roentgenium: the essentials
Roentgenium, was discovered on 8th December 1994 at the GSI in Darmstadt, Germany. The interested reader should consult the on-line version of Creating Super Heavy Elements for a fascinating insight into research on "super-heavy" atoms.
Chemically, roentgenium should be in the same group as the elements copper, silver, and gold (Group 11).
Roentgenium: historical information
Element 111, roentgenium, was discovered towards the end of 1994 at the GSI in Darmstadt, Germany. Three atoms of an isotope 272Uuu were produced in reactions between 209Bi targets and 64Ni projectiles. To achieve this, the nickel atoms were accelerated to high energies by the heavy ion accelerator UNILAC at GSI and directed onto a lead target.
Roentgenium around us Read more »
Element 111, roentgenium, has no biological role.
Roentgenium is a synthetic element that is not present in the geosphere.
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Physical properties Read more »
- Density of solid: 24400 (predicted) kg m-3
- Molar volume: 12 (rough estimate based upon density estimate) cm3
- Thermal conductivity: (no data) W m‑1 K‑1
Heat properties Read more »
Crystal structure Read more »
The solid state structure of roentgenium is: .
Roentgenium: orbital properties Read more »
Roentgenium atoms have 111 electrons and the shell structure is 188.8.131.52.32.18.1. The ground state electronic configuration of neutral Roentgenium is [Rn].5f14.6d10.7s1 (a guess based upon that of gold) and the term symbol of Roentgenium is 2S1/2 (a guess based upon guessed electronic structure).
- Pauling electronegativity: (no data) (Pauling units)
- First ionisation energy: (no data) kJ mol‑1
- Second ionisation energy: (no data) kJ mol‑1
Isolation: only a few atoms of element 111, roentgenium, have ever been made through a nuclear reaction involving fusion of an isotope of bismuth, 209Bi, with one of nickel, 64Ni.
209Bi + 64Ni → 272Rg + 1n
Isolation of an observable quantity has never been achieved, and may well never be.
Roentgenium isotopes Read more »