Rutherfordium: the essentials
Rutherfordium is a synthetic element that is not present in the environment at all. It has no uses.
Rutherfordium: historical information
During 1964, scientists at Dubna in Russia claimed discovery of element 104 and suggested the name Kurchatovium and symbol Ku for the element, in honour of Igor Vasilevich Kurchatov (1903-1960), the late Head of Soviet Nuclear Research. Their experiments involved the collision reactions between 242Pu and 22Ne ions. In 1969 an American group at Berkeley (California) in the USA reported isotopes of Element 104. Their experiments involved reaction high energy collisions between 249Cf and 12C. The American group also indicated that they were unable to reproduce the earlier Russian synthesis from1964. The American group proposed for the new element the name Rutherfordium (symbol Rf), in honour of Ernest R. Rutherford, the New Zealand physicist. Rutherfordium is now the preferred IUPAC name.
Rutherfordium around us Read more »
Rutherfordium has no biological role.
Rutherfordium is a synthetic element that is not present in the geosphere.
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Physical properties Read more »
- Density of solid: 17000 (predicted) kg m-3
- Molar volume: 16 (rough estimate based upon density estimate) cm3
- Thermal conductivity: 23 (estimate) W m‑1 K‑1
Heat properties Read more »
Crystal structure Read more »
The solid state structure of rutherfordium is: .
Rutherfordium: orbital properties Read more »
Rutherfordium atoms have 104 electrons and the shell structure is 18.104.22.168.32.10.2. The ground state electronic configuration of neutral Rutherfordium is [Rn].5f14.6d2.7s2 (tentative) and the term symbol of Rutherfordium is 3F2 (tentative).
- Pauling electronegativity: (no data) (Pauling units)
- First ionisation energy: (no data) kJ mol‑1
- Second ionisation energy: (no data) kJ mol‑1
Isolation: only very small amounts of of element 104, rutherfordium, have ever been made. The first samples were made through nuclear reactions involving fusion of an isotope of plutonium, 242Pu, with one of neon, 22Ne.
22Ne + 242Pu → 260104Rf + 4 1n
Isolation of an observable quantity of rutherfordium has never been achieved.
Rutherfordium isotopes Read more »