Rutherfordium - 104Rf: the essentials
- Name: rutherfordium
- Symbol: Rf
- Atomic number: 104
- Relative atomic mass (Ar): [ 267 ] (longest lived isotope)
- Standard state: presumably a solid at 298 K
- Appearance: unknown, but probably metallic and silvery white or grey in appearance
- Classification: Metallic
- Group in periodic table: 4
- Group name: (none)
- Period in periodic table: 7
- Block in periodic table: d
- Shell structure: 184.108.40.206.32.10.2
- CAS Registry: 53850-36-5
Rutherfordium atoms have 104 electrons and the shell structure is 220.127.116.11.32.10.2. The ground state electronic configuration of neutral rutherfordium is [Rn].5f14.6d2.7s2 (a guess based upon that of hafnium) and the term symbol of rutherfordium is 3F2 (tentative).
Rutherfordium is a synthetic element that is not present in the environment at all. It has no uses.
Rutherfordium: physical properties
- Density of solid: 17000 (predicted) kg m-3
- Molar volume: 16 (rough estimate based upon density estimate) cm3
- Thermal conductivity: 23 (estimate) W m‑1 K‑1
Rutherfordium: heat properties
- Melting point: (no data) K
- Boiling point: (no data) K
- Enthalpy of fusion: 20.5 kJ mol-1
Rutherfordium: atom sizes
- Atomic radius (empirical): (no data) pm
- Molecular single bond covalent radius: 157 (coordination number 4) ppm
- van der Waals radius: (no data) ppm
- Pauling electronegativity: (no data) (Pauling units)
- Allred Rochow electronegativity: (no data) (Pauling units)
- Mulliken-Jaffe electronegativity: (no data)
Rutherfordium: orbital properties
- First ionisation energy: 581 (calculated) kJ mol‑1
- Second ionisation energy: 1380 kJ mol‑1
- Third ionisation energy: 2300 kJ mol‑1
- Universe: (no data) ppb by weight
- Crustal rocks: (no data) ppb by weight
- Human: (no data) ppb by weight
Rutherfordium: crystal structure
Rutherfordium: biological data
- Human abundance by weight: (no data) ppb by weight
Rutherfordium has no biological role.
Reactions of rutherfordium as the element with air, water, halogens, acids, and bases where known.
Rutherfordium: binary compounds
Binary compounds with halogens (known as halides), oxygen (known as oxides), hydrogen (known as hydrides), and other compounds of rutherfordium where known.
Rutherfordium: compound properties
Bond strengths; lattice energies of rutherfordium halides, hydrides, oxides (where known); and reduction potentials where known.
Rutherfordium: historyRutherfordium was discovered by Workers at the Nuclear Institute at Dubna, and the University of California, Berkeley, USA. in 1964 at USSR, United States. Origin of name: the origin of the Amercian Chemical Society preferred name is Lord "Rutherford", the physicist and chemist from New Zealand..
Isolation: only very small amounts of of element 104, rutherfordium, have ever been made. The first samples were made through nuclear reactions involving fusion of an isotope of plutonium, 242Pu, with one of neon, 22Ne.
22Ne + 242Pu → 260104Rf + 4 1n
Isolation of an observable quantity of rutherfordium has never been achieved.