โ–ธโ–ธ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง Chromium
  • ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ณ ้‰ป
  • ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฑ Chroom
  • ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท Chrome
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช Chrom
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฑ ื›ืจื•ื
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡น Cromo
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ต ใ‚ฏใƒญใƒ 
  • ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡น Crômio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡บ ะฅั€ะพะผ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Cromo
  • ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ช Krom

Chromium: properties of free atoms

Chromium atoms have 24 electrons and the shell structure is  2.8.13.1.

The ground state electron configuration of ground state gaseous neutral chromium is  [Ar].3d5.4s1 and the term symbol is  7S3.

Kossel shell structure of chromium
Schematic electronic configuration of chromium.
Kossel shell structure of chromium
The Kossel shell structure of chromium.

Atomic spectrum

 

A representation of the atomic spectrum of chromium.

Ionisation Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of chromium is 64.3 kJ mol‑1. The ionisation energies of chromium are given below.

Ionisation energies of chromium
Ionisation energy number Enthalpy / kJ mol‑1
1st652.87
2nd1590.69
3rd2987.1
4th4743
5th6702
6th8745
7th15470
8th17830
9th20210
10th23590
11th26130
12th28630 (inferred)
13th34220
14th37070
15th97600
16th106000
17th115000
18th125000
19th135000
20th144000
21st158000
Ionisation energies of chromium
Ionisation energies of chromium.

Effective Nuclear Charges

The following are "Clementi-Raimondi" effective nuclear charges, Zeff. Follow the hyperlinks for more details and for graphs in various formats.

Effective nuclear charges for chromium
1s23.4138  
2s16.98 2p20.08  
3s12.37 3p11.47 3d9.76  
4s5.13 4p(no data) 4d(no data) 4f(no data)
5s(no data) 5p(no data) 5d(no data)  
6s(no data) 6p(no data)  
7s   

References

These effective nuclear charges, Zeff, are adapted from the following references:

  1. E. Clementi and D.L.Raimondi, J. Chem. Phys. 1963, 38, 2686.
  2. E. Clementi, D.L.Raimondi, and W.P. Reinhardt, J. Chem. Phys. 1967, 47, 1300.

Electron binding energies

Electron binding energies for chromium. All values of electron binding energies are given in eV. The binding energies are quoted relative to the vacuum level for rare gases and H2, N2, O2, F2, and Cl2 molecules; relative to the Fermi level for metals; and relative to the top of the valence band for semiconductors.
Label Orbital eV [literature reference]
K 1s5989 [1]
L I2s696 [3]
L II2p1/2583.8 [3]
L III2p3/2574.1 [3]
M I3s74.1 [3]
M II3p1/242.2 [3]
M III3p3/242.2 [3]

Notes

I am grateful to Gwyn Williams (Jefferson Laboratory, Virginia, USA) who provided the electron binding energy data. The data are adapted from references 1-3. They are tabulated elsewhere on the WWW (reference 4) and in paper form (reference 5).

References

  1. J. A. Bearden and A. F. Burr, "Reevaluation of X-Ray Atomic Energy Levels," Rev. Mod. Phys., 1967, 39, 125.
  2. M. Cardona and L. Ley, Eds., Photoemission in Solids I: General Principles (Springer-Verlag, Berlin) with additional corrections, 1978.
  3. Gwyn Williams WWW table of values
  4. D.R. Lide, (Ed.) in Chemical Rubber Company handbook of chemistry and physics, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 81st edition, 2000.
  5. J. C. Fuggle and N. Mårtensson, "Core-Level Binding Energies in Metals," J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 1980, 21, 275.