Chromium: properties of compounds

The bond energy in the gaseous diatomic species CrCr is 142.9 ±5.4 kJ mol-1.

Chromium: bond enthalpies in gaseous diatomic species

The following values refer to neutral heterodiatomic molecules in the gas phase. These numbers may well differ considerably from, say, single bond energies in a solid. All values are given in kJ mol-1.

Diatomic CrX bond enthalpies. All values are quoted in kJ mol-1. Each formula in the table (CrO, CrF, and so on) is a link - select these to see visual periodicity representations for bond enthalpies involving chromium to elements of your choice.
CrH             CrHe
190.3 ±7.0              
CrLi CrBe CrB CrC CrN CrO CrF CrNe
        377.8 ±18.8 429.3 ±29.3 444.8 ±19.7  
CrNa CrMg CrAl CrSi CrP CrS CrCl CrAr
          331 366.1 ±24.3  
CrK CrCa CrGa CrGe CrAs CrSe CrBr CrKr
      154 ±7     328.0 ±24.3  
CrRb CrSr CrIn CrSn CrSb CrTe CrI CrXe
      141 ±3     287.0 ±24.3  
CrCs CrBa CrTl CrPb CrBi CrPo CrAt CrRn
      105 ±2        
CrFr CrRa            
               

Notes

I am grateful to Professor J.A. Kerr (University of Birmingham, UK) for the provision of the bond strengths of diatomic molecules data.

The values given here are at 298 K. All values are quoted in kJ mol-1. Generally, these data were obtained by spectroscopic or mass spectrometric means. You should consult reference 1 for further details. A note of caution: the strength of, say, the C-H bond in the gaseous diatomic species CH (not an isolable species) is not necessarily, the same as the strength of a C-H bond in, say, methane.

The strongest bond for a diatomic species is that of carbon monoxide, CO (1076.5 ± 0.4 kJ mol-1). The strongest bond for a homonuclear diatomic species is that of dinitrogen, N2 (945.33 ± 0.59 kJ mol-1).

References

  1. J.A. Kerr in CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 1999-2000 : A Ready-Reference Book of Chemical and Physical Data (CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, D.R. Lide, (ed.), CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 81st edition, 2000.

Chromium: lattice energies

All values of lattice energies are quoted in kJ mol-1.

Table. All values of lattice energies are quoted in kJ mol-1.
Compound Thermochemical cycle / kJ mol-1 Calculated / kJ mol-1
CrF2 2917 2778
CrF3 6033 5958
CrCl2 2586 2455
CrCl3 5509 5473
CrBr2 2523 2377
CrBr3 (no value) 5355
CrI2 2425 2269
CrI3 5274 5201
CrH (no value) 1050
Cr2O3 14957 15276
  1. H.D.B. Jenkins - personal communication. I am grateful to Dr Don Jenkins (University of Warwick, UK) who provided the lattice energy data, which are adapted from his contribution contained within reference 2.
  2. H.D.B. Jenkins in CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 1999-2000 : A Ready-Reference Book of Chemical and Physical Data (CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, D.R. Lide, (ed.), CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 79th edition, 1998.

Standard Reduction Potentials

Standard reduction potentials of Cr

References

The standard reduction potentials given here for aqueous solutions are adapted from the IUPAC publication reference 1 with additional data and an occasional correction incorporated from many other sources, in particular, references 2-7.

  1. A.J. Bard, R. Parsons, and J. Jordan, Standard Potentials in Aqueous Solutions, IUPAC (Marcel Dekker), New York, USA, 1985.
  2. N.N. Greenwood and A. Earnshaw, Chemistry of the Elements, 2nd edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, UK, 1997.
  3. F.A. Cotton and G. Wilkinson, Advanced Inorganic Chemistry, 5th edition, John Wiley & Sons, New York, USA, 1988.
  4. B. Douglas, D.H. McDaniel, and J.J. Alexander, Concepts and models of Inorganic Chemistry, 2nd edition, John Wiley & Sons, New York, USA, 1983.
  5. D.F. Shriver, P.W. Atkins, and C.H. Langford, Inorganic Chemstry, 3rd edition, Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, 1999.
  6. J.E. Huheey, E.A. Keiter, and R.L. Keiter in Inorganic Chemistry : Principles of Structure and Reactivity, 4th edition, HarperCollins, New York, USA, 1993.
  7. G.T. Seaborg and W.D. Loveland in The elements beyond uranium, John Wiley & Sons, New York, USA, 1990.

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