โ–ธโ–ธ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง Hafnium
  • ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ณ ้‰ฟ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฑ Hafnium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท Hafnium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช Hafnium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฑ ื”ืคื ื™ื•ื
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡น Afnio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ต ใƒใƒ•ใƒ‹ใ‚ฆใƒ 
  • ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡น Háfnio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡บ ะ“ะฐั„ะฝะธะน
  • ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Hafnio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ช Hafnium

Hafnium: properties of compounds

The bond energy in the gaseous diatomic species HfHf is (no data) kJ mol-1.

Hafnium: bond enthalpies in gaseous diatomic species

The following values refer to neutral heterodiatomic molecules in the gas phase. These numbers may well differ considerably from, say, single bond energies in a solid. All values are given in kJ mol-1.

Diatomic HfX bond enthalpies. All values are quoted in kJ mol-1. Each formula in the table (HfO, HfF, and so on) is a link - select these to see visual periodicity representations for bond enthalpies involving hafnium to elements of your choice.
HfH             HfHe
               
HfLi HfBe HfB HfC HfN HfO HfF HfNe
      540 ±25 536 ±29 801.7 ±13.4 650 ±15  
HfNa HfMg HfAl HfSi HfP HfS HfCl HfAr
               
HfK HfCa HfGa HfGe HfAs HfSe HfBr HfKr
               
HfRb HfSr HfIn HfSn HfSb HfTe HfI HfXe
               
HfCs HfBa HfTl HfPb HfBi HfPo HfAt HfRn
               
HfFr HfRa            
               
Image showing periodicity of element-element diatomic bond energies for the chemical elements as size-coded columns on a periodic table grid.
Image showing periodicity of element-element diatomic bond energies for the chemical elements as size-coded columns on a periodic table grid.

Notes

I am grateful to Professor J.A. Kerr (University of Birmingham, UK) for the provision of the bond strengths of diatomic molecules data.

The values given here are at 298 K. All values are quoted in kJ mol-1. Generally, these data were obtained by spectroscopic or mass spectrometric means. You should consult reference 1 for further details. A note of caution: the strength of, say, the C-H bond in the gaseous diatomic species CH (not an isolable species) is not necessarily, the same as the strength of a C-H bond in, say, methane.

The strongest bond for a diatomic species is that of carbon monoxide, CO (1076.5 ± 0.4 kJ mol-1). The strongest bond for a homonuclear diatomic species is that of dinitrogen, N2 (945.33 ± 0.59 kJ mol-1).

References

  1. J.A. Kerr in CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 1999-2000 : A Ready-Reference Book of Chemical and Physical Data (CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, D.R. Lide, (ed.), CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 81st edition, 2000.

Hafnium: lattice energies

All values of lattice energies are quoted in kJ mol-1.

Table. All values of lattice energies are quoted in kJ mol-1.
Compound Thermochemical cycle / kJ mol-1 Calculated / kJ mol-1
No data for any fluorides of hafnium.
No data for any chlorides of hafnium.
No data for any bromides of hafnium.
No data for any iodides of hafnium.
HfH (no value) 904
No data for any oxides of hafnium.
  1. H.D.B. Jenkins - personal communication. I am grateful to Prof Don Jenkins (University of Warwick, UK) who provided the lattice energy data, which are adapted from his contribution contained within reference 2.
  2. H.D.B. Jenkins in CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 1999-2000 : A Ready-Reference Book of Chemical and Physical Data (CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, D.R. Lide, (ed.), CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 79th edition, 1998.

Standard Reduction Potentials

Standard reduction potentials of Hf
Standard reduction potentials of hafnium

References

The standard reduction potentials given here for aqueous solutions are adapted from the IUPAC publication reference 1 with additional data and an occasional correction incorporated from many other sources, in particular, references 2-7.

  1. A.J. Bard, R. Parsons, and J. Jordan, Standard Potentials in Aqueous Solutions, IUPAC (Marcel Dekker), New York, USA, 1985.
  2. N.N. Greenwood and A. Earnshaw, Chemistry of the Elements, 2nd edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, UK, 1997.
  3. F.A. Cotton and G. Wilkinson, Advanced Inorganic Chemistry, 5th edition, John Wiley & Sons, New York, USA, 1988.
  4. B. Douglas, D.H. McDaniel, and J.J. Alexander, Concepts and models of Inorganic Chemistry, 2nd edition, John Wiley & Sons, New York, USA, 1983.
  5. D.F. Shriver, P.W. Atkins, and C.H. Langford, Inorganic Chemstry, 3rd edition, Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, 1999.
  6. J.E. Huheey, E.A. Keiter, and R.L. Keiter in Inorganic Chemistry : Principles of Structure and Reactivity, 4th edition, HarperCollins, New York, USA, 1993.
  7. G.T. Seaborg and W.D. Loveland in The elements beyond uranium, John Wiley & Sons, New York, USA, 1990.