โ–ธโ–ธ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง Thorium
  • ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ณ ้‡ท
  • ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฑ Thorium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท Thorium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช Thorium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฑ ืชื•ืจื™ื•ื
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡น Torio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ต ใƒˆใƒชใ‚ฆใƒ 
  • ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡น Tório
  • ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡บ ะขะพั€ะธะน
  • ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Torio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ช Torium

Thorium: properties of compounds

The bond energy in the gaseous diatomic species ThTh is <= 289 kJ mol-1.

Thorium: bond enthalpies in gaseous diatomic species

The following values refer to neutral heterodiatomic molecules in the gas phase. These numbers may well differ considerably from, say, single bond energies in a solid. All values are given in kJ mol-1.

Diatomic ThX bond enthalpies. All values are quoted in kJ mol-1. Each formula in the table (ThO, ThF, and so on) is a link - select these to see visual periodicity representations for bond enthalpies involving thorium to elements of your choice.
ThH             ThHe
               
ThLi ThBe ThB ThC ThN ThO ThF ThNe
    297 453 ±17 577.4 ±33.1 878.6 ±12.1 652  
ThNa ThMg ThAl ThSi ThP ThS ThCl ThAr
        550.2 ±42   489  
ThK ThCa ThGa ThGe ThAs ThSe ThBr ThKr
            364  
ThRb ThSr ThIn ThSn ThSb ThTe ThI ThXe
               
ThCs ThBa ThTl ThPb ThBi ThPo ThAt ThRn
               
ThFr ThRa            
               
Image showing periodicity of element-element diatomic bond energies for the chemical elements as size-coded columns on a periodic table grid.
Image showing periodicity of element-element diatomic bond energies for the chemical elements as size-coded columns on a periodic table grid.

Notes

I am grateful to Professor J.A. Kerr (University of Birmingham, UK) for the provision of the bond strengths of diatomic molecules data.

The values given here are at 298 K. All values are quoted in kJ mol-1. Generally, these data were obtained by spectroscopic or mass spectrometric means. You should consult reference 1 for further details. A note of caution: the strength of, say, the C-H bond in the gaseous diatomic species CH (not an isolable species) is not necessarily, the same as the strength of a C-H bond in, say, methane.

The strongest bond for a diatomic species is that of carbon monoxide, CO (1076.5 ± 0.4 kJ mol-1). The strongest bond for a homonuclear diatomic species is that of dinitrogen, N2 (945.33 ± 0.59 kJ mol-1).

References

  1. J.A. Kerr in CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 1999-2000 : A Ready-Reference Book of Chemical and Physical Data (CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, D.R. Lide, (ed.), CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 81st edition, 2000.

Thorium: lattice energies

All values of lattice energies are quoted in kJ mol-1.

Table. All values of lattice energies are quoted in kJ mol-1.
Compound Thermochemical cycle / kJ mol-1 Calculated / kJ mol-1
No data for any fluorides of thorium.
No data for any chlorides of thorium.
No data for any bromides of thorium.
No data for any iodides of thorium.
ThH2 (no value) 2711
ThO2 (no value) 10397
  1. H.D.B. Jenkins - personal communication. I am grateful to Prof Don Jenkins (University of Warwick, UK) who provided the lattice energy data, which are adapted from his contribution contained within reference 2.
  2. H.D.B. Jenkins in CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 1999-2000 : A Ready-Reference Book of Chemical and Physical Data (CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, D.R. Lide, (ed.), CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 79th edition, 1998.

Standard Reduction Potentials

Standard reduction potentials of Th
Standard reduction potentials of thorium

References

The standard reduction potentials given here for aqueous solutions are adapted from the IUPAC publication reference 1 with additional data and an occasional correction incorporated from many other sources, in particular, references 2-7.

  1. A.J. Bard, R. Parsons, and J. Jordan, Standard Potentials in Aqueous Solutions, IUPAC (Marcel Dekker), New York, USA, 1985.
  2. N.N. Greenwood and A. Earnshaw, Chemistry of the Elements, 2nd edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, UK, 1997.
  3. F.A. Cotton and G. Wilkinson, Advanced Inorganic Chemistry, 5th edition, John Wiley & Sons, New York, USA, 1988.
  4. B. Douglas, D.H. McDaniel, and J.J. Alexander, Concepts and models of Inorganic Chemistry, 2nd edition, John Wiley & Sons, New York, USA, 1983.
  5. D.F. Shriver, P.W. Atkins, and C.H. Langford, Inorganic Chemstry, 3rd edition, Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, 1999.
  6. J.E. Huheey, E.A. Keiter, and R.L. Keiter in Inorganic Chemistry : Principles of Structure and Reactivity, 4th edition, HarperCollins, New York, USA, 1993.
  7. G.T. Seaborg and W.D. Loveland in The elements beyond uranium, John Wiley & Sons, New York, USA, 1990.