โ–ธโ–ธ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง Zirconium
  • ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ณ ้‹ฏ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฑ Zirkonium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท Zirconium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช Zirconium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฑ ื–ื™ืจืงื•ื ื™ื•ื
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡น Zirconio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ต ใ‚ธใƒซใ‚ณใƒ‹ใ‚ฆใƒ 
  • ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡น Zircônio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡บ ะฆะธั€ะบะพะฝะธะน
  • ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Circonio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ช Zirkonium

Zirconium: properties of compounds

The bond energy in the gaseous diatomic species ZrZr is (no data) kJ mol-1.

Zirconium: bond enthalpies in gaseous diatomic species

The following values refer to neutral heterodiatomic molecules in the gas phase. These numbers may well differ considerably from, say, single bond energies in a solid. All values are given in kJ mol-1.

Diatomic ZrX bond enthalpies. All values are quoted in kJ mol-1. Each formula in the table (ZrO, ZrF, and so on) is a link - select these to see visual periodicity representations for bond enthalpies involving zirconium to elements of your choice.
ZrH             ZrHe
               
ZrLi ZrBe ZrB ZrC ZrN ZrO ZrF ZrNe
      561 ±25 564.8 ±25.1 776.1 ±13.4 616 ±15  
ZrNa ZrMg ZrAl ZrSi ZrP ZrS ZrCl ZrAr
          575.3 ±16.7    
ZrK ZrCa ZrGa ZrGe ZrAs ZrSe ZrBr ZrKr
               
ZrRb ZrSr ZrIn ZrSn ZrSb ZrTe ZrI ZrXe
            305  
ZrCs ZrBa ZrTl ZrPb ZrBi ZrPo ZrAt ZrRn
               
ZrFr ZrRa            
               
Image showing periodicity of element-element diatomic bond energies for the chemical elements as size-coded columns on a periodic table grid.
Image showing periodicity of element-element diatomic bond energies for the chemical elements as size-coded columns on a periodic table grid.

Notes

I am grateful to Professor J.A. Kerr (University of Birmingham, UK) for the provision of the bond strengths of diatomic molecules data.

The values given here are at 298 K. All values are quoted in kJ mol-1. Generally, these data were obtained by spectroscopic or mass spectrometric means. You should consult reference 1 for further details. A note of caution: the strength of, say, the C-H bond in the gaseous diatomic species CH (not an isolable species) is not necessarily, the same as the strength of a C-H bond in, say, methane.

The strongest bond for a diatomic species is that of carbon monoxide, CO (1076.5 ± 0.4 kJ mol-1). The strongest bond for a homonuclear diatomic species is that of dinitrogen, N2 (945.33 ± 0.59 kJ mol-1).

References

  1. J.A. Kerr in CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 1999-2000 : A Ready-Reference Book of Chemical and Physical Data (CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, D.R. Lide, (ed.), CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 81st edition, 2000.

Zirconium: lattice energies

All values of lattice energies are quoted in kJ mol-1.

Table. All values of lattice energies are quoted in kJ mol-1.
Compound Thermochemical cycle / kJ mol-1 Calculated / kJ mol-1
ZrF3 5400 (no value)
ZrF4 8971 8853
ZrCl3 4791 (no value)
ZrCl4 8144 8096
ZrBr3 4758 (no value)
ZrBr4 7984 7916
ZrI3 4591 (no value)
ZrI4 7801 7661
ZrH 1590 916
ZrH2 (no value) 2711
ZrH3 2999 (no value)
ZrO2 (no value) 11188
  1. H.D.B. Jenkins - personal communication. I am grateful to Prof Don Jenkins (University of Warwick, UK) who provided the lattice energy data, which are adapted from his contribution contained within reference 2.
  2. H.D.B. Jenkins in CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 1999-2000 : A Ready-Reference Book of Chemical and Physical Data (CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, D.R. Lide, (ed.), CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 79th edition, 1998.

Standard Reduction Potentials

Standard reduction potentials of Zr
Standard reduction potentials of zirconium

References

The standard reduction potentials given here for aqueous solutions are adapted from the IUPAC publication reference 1 with additional data and an occasional correction incorporated from many other sources, in particular, references 2-7.

  1. A.J. Bard, R. Parsons, and J. Jordan, Standard Potentials in Aqueous Solutions, IUPAC (Marcel Dekker), New York, USA, 1985.
  2. N.N. Greenwood and A. Earnshaw, Chemistry of the Elements, 2nd edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, UK, 1997.
  3. F.A. Cotton and G. Wilkinson, Advanced Inorganic Chemistry, 5th edition, John Wiley & Sons, New York, USA, 1988.
  4. B. Douglas, D.H. McDaniel, and J.J. Alexander, Concepts and models of Inorganic Chemistry, 2nd edition, John Wiley & Sons, New York, USA, 1983.
  5. D.F. Shriver, P.W. Atkins, and C.H. Langford, Inorganic Chemstry, 3rd edition, Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, 1999.
  6. J.E. Huheey, E.A. Keiter, and R.L. Keiter in Inorganic Chemistry : Principles of Structure and Reactivity, 4th edition, HarperCollins, New York, USA, 1993.
  7. G.T. Seaborg and W.D. Loveland in The elements beyond uranium, John Wiley & Sons, New York, USA, 1990.