โ–ธโ–ธ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง Tantalum
  • ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ณ ้‰ญ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฑ Tantaal
  • ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท Tantale
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช Tantal
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฑ ื˜ื ื˜ืœื•ื
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡น Tantalio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ต ใ‚ฟใƒณใ‚ฟใƒซ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡น Tântalo
  • ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡บ ะขะฐะฝั‚ะฐะป
  • ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Tántalo
  • ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ช Tantal

Tantalum: properties of free atoms

Tantalum atoms have 73 electrons and the shell structure is  2.8.18.32.11.2.

The ground state electron configuration of ground state gaseous neutral tantalum is  [Xe].4f14.5d3.6s2 and the term symbol is  4F3/2.

Kossel shell structure of tantalum
Schematic electronic configuration of tantalum.
Kossel shell structure of tantalum
The Kossel shell structure of tantalum.

Atomic spectrum

 

A representation of the atomic spectrum of tantalum.

Ionisation Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of tantalum is 31 kJ mol‑1. The ionisation energies of tantalum are given below.

Ionisation energies of tantalum
Ionisation energy number Enthalpy / kJ mol‑1
1st728.42
2nd1560
3rd2230
4th3380
5th4657.5
6th9070
7th11500
8th13400
9th15300
10th17400
11th20600
12th22700 (calculated)
13th25300
14th29300
15th32600
16th35000
17th38200
18th42400
19th46500
20th51100
21st55000
Ionisation energies of tantalum
Ionisation energies of tantalum.

Effective Nuclear Charges

The following are "Clementi-Raimondi" effective nuclear charges, Zeff. Follow the hyperlinks for more details and for graphs in various formats.

Effective nuclear charges for tantalum
1s71.58  
2s53.93 2p68.59  
3s51.09 3p51.80 3d59.44  
4s39.76 4p38.73 4d36.32 4f33.47
5s22.69 5p20.47 5d16.37  
6s9.53 6p(no data)  
7s   

References

These effective nuclear charges, Zeff, are adapted from the following references:

  1. E. Clementi and D.L.Raimondi, J. Chem. Phys. 1963, 38, 2686.
  2. E. Clementi, D.L.Raimondi, and W.P. Reinhardt, J. Chem. Phys. 1967, 47, 1300.

Electron binding energies

Electron binding energies for tantalum. All values of electron binding energies are given in eV. The binding energies are quoted relative to the vacuum level for rare gases and H2, N2, O2, F2, and Cl2 molecules; relative to the Fermi level for metals; and relative to the top of the valence band for semiconductors.
Label Orbital eV [literature reference]
K 1s67416 [1]
L I2s11682 [1]
L II2p1/211136 [1]
L III2p3/29881 [1]
M I3s2708 [1]
M II3p1/22469 [1]
M III3p3/22194 [1]
M IV3d3/21793 [1]
M V3d5/21735 [1]
N I4s563.4 [3]
N II4p1/2463.4 [3]
N III4p3/2400.9 [3]
N IV4d3/2237.9 [3]
N V4d5/2226.4 [3]
N VI4f5/223.5 [3]
N VII4f7/221.6 [3]
O I5s69.7 [3]
O II5p1/242.2 [2]
O III5p3/232.7 [3]

Notes

I am grateful to Gwyn Williams (Jefferson Laboratory, Virginia, USA) who provided the electron binding energy data. The data are adapted from references 1-3. They are tabulated elsewhere on the WWW (reference 4) and in paper form (reference 5).

References

  1. J. A. Bearden and A. F. Burr, "Reevaluation of X-Ray Atomic Energy Levels," Rev. Mod. Phys., 1967, 39, 125.
  2. M. Cardona and L. Ley, Eds., Photoemission in Solids I: General Principles (Springer-Verlag, Berlin) with additional corrections, 1978.
  3. Gwyn Williams WWW table of values
  4. D.R. Lide, (Ed.) in Chemical Rubber Company handbook of chemistry and physics, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 81st edition, 2000.
  5. J. C. Fuggle and N. Mårtensson, "Core-Level Binding Energies in Metals," J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 1980, 21, 275.