โ–ธโ–ธ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง Cerium
  • ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ณ ้ˆฐ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฑ Cerium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท Cérium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช Cer
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฑ ืกืจื™ื•ื
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡น Cerio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ต ใ‚ปใƒชใ‚ฆใƒ 
  • ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡น Cério
  • ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡บ ะฆะตั€ะธะน
  • ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Cerio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ช Cerium

Cerium: properties of free atoms

Cerium atoms have 58 electrons and the shell structure is  2.8.18.19.9.2.

The ground state electron configuration of ground state gaseous neutral cerium is  [Xe].4f1.5d1.6s2 and the term symbol is  1G4.

Kossel shell structure of cerium
Schematic electronic configuration of cerium.
Kossel shell structure of cerium
The Kossel shell structure of cerium.

Atomic spectrum

 

A representation of the atomic spectrum of cerium.

Ionisation Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of cerium is 50 kJ mol‑1. The ionisation energies of cerium are given below.

Ionisation energies of cerium
Ionisation energy number Enthalpy / kJ mol‑1
1st534.39
2nd1057.09
3rd1948.75
4th3560.9
5th6320
6th7490
7th8780
8th10230
9th12060
10th13510
11th16600
12th18550 (inferred)
13th30100
14th32800
15th35800
16th38900
17th42000
18th45500
19th49100
20th52400
21st55900
Ionisation energies of cerium
Ionisation energies of cerium.

Effective Nuclear Charges

The following are "Clementi-Raimondi" effective nuclear charges, Zeff. Follow the hyperlinks for more details and for graphs in various formats.

Effective nuclear charges for cerium
1s56.85  
2s42.74 2p53.78  
3s38.66 3p38.96 3d44.09  
4s29.68 4p28.61 4d25.66 4f1.68
5s18.91 5p16.97 5d(no data)  
6s10.80 6p(no data)  
7s   

References

These effective nuclear charges, Zeff, are adapted from the following references:

  1. E. Clementi and D.L.Raimondi, J. Chem. Phys. 1963, 38, 2686.
  2. E. Clementi, D.L.Raimondi, and W.P. Reinhardt, J. Chem. Phys. 1967, 47, 1300.

Electron binding energies

Electron binding energies for cerium. All values of electron binding energies are given in eV. The binding energies are quoted relative to the vacuum level for rare gases and H2, N2, O2, F2, and Cl2 molecules; relative to the Fermi level for metals; and relative to the top of the valence band for semiconductors.
Label Orbital eV [literature reference]
K 1s40443 [1]
L I2s6548 [1]
L II2p1/26164 [1]
L III2p3/25723 [1]
M I3s1436 [2, values derived from reference 1]
M II3p1/21274 [2, values derived from reference 1]
M III3p3/21187 [2, values derived from reference 1]
M IV3d3/2902.4 [2]
M V3d5/2883.8 [2]
N I4s291 [2]
N II4p1/2223.2 [1]
N III4p3/2206.5 [2]
N IV4d3/2109 [2]
N V4d5/2 -
N VI4f5/20.1 [1]
N VII4f7/20.1 [1]
O I5s37.8 [1]
O II5p1/219.8 [2]
O III5p3/217 [2]

Notes

I am grateful to Gwyn Williams (Jefferson Laboratory, Virginia, USA) who provided the electron binding energy data. The data are adapted from references 1-3. They are tabulated elsewhere on the WWW (reference 4) and in paper form (reference 5).

References

  1. J. A. Bearden and A. F. Burr, "Reevaluation of X-Ray Atomic Energy Levels," Rev. Mod. Phys., 1967, 39, 125.
  2. M. Cardona and L. Ley, Eds., Photoemission in Solids I: General Principles (Springer-Verlag, Berlin) with additional corrections, 1978.
  3. Gwyn Williams WWW table of values
  4. D.R. Lide, (Ed.) in Chemical Rubber Company handbook of chemistry and physics, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 81st edition, 2000.
  5. J. C. Fuggle and N. Mårtensson, "Core-Level Binding Energies in Metals," J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 1980, 21, 275.