Nickel: properties of free atoms
Nickel atoms have 28 electrons and the shell structure is 18.104.22.168.
The ground state electron configuration of ground state gaseous neutral nickel is [Ar].3d8.4s2 and the term symbol is 3F4.
A representation of the atomic spectrum of nickel.
Ionisation Energies and electron affinity
Effective Nuclear Charges
The following are "Clementi-Raimondi" effective nuclear charges, Zeff. Follow the hyperlinks for more details and for graphs in various formats.
|4s||5.71||4p||(no data)||4d||(no data)||4f||(no data)|
|5s||(no data)||5p||(no data)||5d||(no data)|
|6s||(no data)||6p||(no data)|
These effective nuclear charges, Zeff, are adapted from the following references:
- E. Clementi and D.L.Raimondi, J. Chem. Phys. 1963, 38, 2686.
- E. Clementi, D.L.Raimondi, and W.P. Reinhardt, J. Chem. Phys. 1967, 47, 1300.
Electron binding energies
|Label||Orbital||eV [literature reference]|
|L I||2s||1008.6 |
|L II||2p1/2||870 |
|L III||2p3/2||852.7 |
|M I||3s||110.8 |
|M II||3p1/2||68 |
|M III||3p3/2||66.2 |
I am grateful to Gwyn Williams (Jefferson Laboratory, Virginia, USA) who provided the electron binding energy data. The data are adapted from references 1-3. They are tabulated elsewhere on the WWW (reference 4) and in paper form (reference 5).
- J. A. Bearden and A. F. Burr, "Reevaluation of X-Ray Atomic Energy Levels," Rev. Mod. Phys., 1967, 39, 125.
- M. Cardona and L. Ley, Eds., Photoemission in Solids I: General Principles (Springer-Verlag, Berlin) with additional corrections, 1978.
- Gwyn Williams WWW table of values
- D.R. Lide, (Ed.) in Chemical Rubber Company handbook of chemistry and physics, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 81st edition, 2000.
- J. C. Fuggle and N. Mårtensson, "Core-Level Binding Energies in Metals," J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 1980, 21, 275.