โ–ธโ–ธ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง Nickel
  • ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ณ ้Žณ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฑ Nikkel
  • ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท Nickel
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช Nickel
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฑ ื ื™ืงืœ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡น Nichel
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ต ใƒ‹ใƒƒใ‚ฑใƒซ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡น Níquel
  • ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡บ ะะธะบะตะปัŒ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Niquel
  • ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ช Nickel

Nickel: properties of free atoms

Nickel atoms have 28 electrons and the shell structure is  2.8.16.2.

The ground state electron configuration of ground state gaseous neutral nickel is  [Ar].3d8.4s2 and the term symbol is  3F4.

Kossel shell structure of nickel
Schematic electronic configuration of nickel.
Kossel shell structure of nickel
The Kossel shell structure of nickel.

Atomic spectrum

 

A representation of the atomic spectrum of nickel.

Ionisation Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of nickel is 112 kJ mol‑1. The ionisation energies of nickel are given below.

Ionisation energies of nickel
Ionisation energy number Enthalpy / kJ mol‑1
1st737.14
2nd1753.03
3rd3395.0
4th5299
5th7339
6th10420
7th12740
8th15630
9th18640
10th21680
11th30830
12th33920 (inferred)
13th37100
14th41420
15th44650
16th47800
17th55100
18th58570
19th149000
20th159000
21st170000
Ionisation energies of nickel
Ionisation energies of nickel.

Effective Nuclear Charges

The following are "Clementi-Raimondi" effective nuclear charges, Zeff. Follow the hyperlinks for more details and for graphs in various formats.

Effective nuclear charges for nickel
1s27.3526  
2s20.21 2p24.10  
3s14.96 3p14.09 3d12.53  
4s5.71 4p(no data) 4d(no data) 4f(no data)
5s(no data) 5p(no data) 5d(no data)  
6s(no data) 6p(no data)  
7s   

References

These effective nuclear charges, Zeff, are adapted from the following references:

  1. E. Clementi and D.L.Raimondi, J. Chem. Phys. 1963, 38, 2686.
  2. E. Clementi, D.L.Raimondi, and W.P. Reinhardt, J. Chem. Phys. 1967, 47, 1300.

Electron binding energies

Electron binding energies for nickel. All values of electron binding energies are given in eV. The binding energies are quoted relative to the vacuum level for rare gases and H2, N2, O2, F2, and Cl2 molecules; relative to the Fermi level for metals; and relative to the top of the valence band for semiconductors.
Label Orbital eV [literature reference]
K 1s8333 [1]
L I2s1008.6 [3]
L II2p1/2870 [3]
L III2p3/2852.7 [3]
M I3s110.8 [3]
M II3p1/268 [3]
M III3p3/266.2 [3]

Notes

I am grateful to Gwyn Williams (Jefferson Laboratory, Virginia, USA) who provided the electron binding energy data. The data are adapted from references 1-3. They are tabulated elsewhere on the WWW (reference 4) and in paper form (reference 5).

References

  1. J. A. Bearden and A. F. Burr, "Reevaluation of X-Ray Atomic Energy Levels," Rev. Mod. Phys., 1967, 39, 125.
  2. M. Cardona and L. Ley, Eds., Photoemission in Solids I: General Principles (Springer-Verlag, Berlin) with additional corrections, 1978.
  3. Gwyn Williams WWW table of values
  4. D.R. Lide, (Ed.) in Chemical Rubber Company handbook of chemistry and physics, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 81st edition, 2000.
  5. J. C. Fuggle and N. Mårtensson, "Core-Level Binding Energies in Metals," J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 1980, 21, 275.