โ–ธโ–ธ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง Neptunium
  • ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ณ ้Œผ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฑ Neptunium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท Neptunium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช Neptunium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฑ ื ืคื˜ื•ื ื™ื•ื
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡น Nettunio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ต ใƒใƒ—ใƒ„ใƒ‹ใ‚ฆใƒ 
  • ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡น Neptúnio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡บ ะะตะฟั‚ัƒะฝะธะน
  • ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Neptunio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ช Neptunium

Neptunium: properties of free atoms

Neptunium atoms have 93 electrons and the shell structure is  2.8.18.32.22.9.2.

The ground state electron configuration of ground state gaseous neutral neptunium is  [Rn].5f4.6d1.7s2 and the term symbol is  6L11/2.

Kossel shell structure of neptunium
Schematic electronic configuration of neptunium.
Kossel shell structure of neptunium
The Kossel shell structure of neptunium.

Atomic spectrum

 

A representation of the atomic spectrum of neptunium.

Ionisation Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of neptunium is (no data) kJ mol‑1. The ionisation energies of neptunium are given below.

Ionisation energies of neptunium
Ionisation energy number Enthalpy / kJ mol‑1
1st604.53
2nd1110
3rd1900
4th3260
5th4630
6th6270
7th8880
8th10300
9th11700
10th13100
11th14600
12th17300 (calculated)
13th18900
14th22500
15th24300
16th34300
17th36900
18th39400
19th42300
20th45000
21st47800
Ionisation energies of neptunium
Ionisation energies of neptunium.

Effective Nuclear Charges

The following are "Clementi-Raimondi" effective nuclear charges, Zeff. Follow the hyperlinks for more details and for graphs in various formats.

Effective nuclear charges for neptunium
1s(no data)  
2s(no data) 2p(no data)  
3s(no data) 3p(no data) 3d(no data)  
4s(no data) 4p(no data) 4d(no data) 4f(no data)
5s(no data) 5p(no data) 5d(no data)  
6s(no data) 6p(no data)  
7s   

References

These effective nuclear charges, Zeff, are adapted from the following references:

  1. E. Clementi and D.L.Raimondi, J. Chem. Phys. 1963, 38, 2686.
  2. E. Clementi, D.L.Raimondi, and W.P. Reinhardt, J. Chem. Phys. 1967, 47, 1300.

Electron binding energies

Electron binding energies for neptunium. All values of electron binding energies are given in eV. The binding energies are quoted relative to the vacuum level for rare gases and H2, N2, O2, F2, and Cl2 molecules; relative to the Fermi level for metals; and relative to the top of the valence band for semiconductors.
Label Orbital eV [literature reference]

Notes

I am grateful to Gwyn Williams (Jefferson Laboratory, Virginia, USA) who provided the electron binding energy data. The data are adapted from references 1-3. They are tabulated elsewhere on the WWW (reference 4) and in paper form (reference 5).

References

  1. J. A. Bearden and A. F. Burr, "Reevaluation of X-Ray Atomic Energy Levels," Rev. Mod. Phys., 1967, 39, 125.
  2. M. Cardona and L. Ley, Eds., Photoemission in Solids I: General Principles (Springer-Verlag, Berlin) with additional corrections, 1978.
  3. Gwyn Williams WWW table of values
  4. D.R. Lide, (Ed.) in Chemical Rubber Company handbook of chemistry and physics, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 81st edition, 2000.
  5. J. C. Fuggle and N. Mårtensson, "Core-Level Binding Energies in Metals," J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 1980, 21, 275.