โ–ธโ–ธ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง Sodium
  • ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ณ ้ˆ‰
  • ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฑ Natrium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท Sodium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช Natrium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฑ ื ืชืจืŸ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡น Sodio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ต ใƒŠใƒˆใƒชใ‚ฆใƒ 
  • ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡น Sódio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡บ ะะฐั‚ั€ะธะน
  • ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Sodio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ช Natrium

Sodium: properties of free atoms

Sodium atoms have 11 electrons and the shell structure is  2.8.1.

The ground state electron configuration of ground state gaseous neutral sodium is  [Ne].3s1 and the term symbol is  2S1/2.

Kossel shell structure of sodium
Schematic electronic configuration of sodium.
Kossel shell structure of sodium
The Kossel shell structure of sodium.

Atomic spectrum

 

A representation of the atomic spectrum of sodium.

Ionisation Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of sodium is 52.8 kJ mol‑1. The ionisation energies of sodium are given below.

Ionisation energies of sodium
Ionisation energy number Enthalpy / kJ mol‑1
1st495.85
2nd4562.44
3rd6910.28
4th9545.87
5th13354.0
6th16617.7
7th20117.6
8th25490.6
9th28931.7
10th141364
11th159076
Ionisation energies of sodium
Ionisation energies of sodium.

Effective Nuclear Charges

The following are "Clementi-Raimondi" effective nuclear charges, Zeff. Follow the hyperlinks for more details and for graphs in various formats.

Effective nuclear charges for sodium
1s10.6259  
2s6.57 2p6.80  
3s2.51 3p(no data) 3d(no data)  
4s(no data) 4p(no data) 4d(no data) 4f(no data)
5s(no data) 5p(no data) 5d(no data)  
6s(no data) 6p(no data)  
7s   

References

These effective nuclear charges, Zeff, are adapted from the following references:

  1. E. Clementi and D.L.Raimondi, J. Chem. Phys. 1963, 38, 2686.
  2. E. Clementi, D.L.Raimondi, and W.P. Reinhardt, J. Chem. Phys. 1967, 47, 1300.

Electron binding energies

Electron binding energies for sodium. All values of electron binding energies are given in eV. The binding energies are quoted relative to the vacuum level for rare gases and H2, N2, O2, F2, and Cl2 molecules; relative to the Fermi level for metals; and relative to the top of the valence band for semiconductors.
Label Orbital eV [literature reference]
K 1s1070.8 [3]
L I2s63.5 [3]
L II2p1/230.4 [3]
L III2p3/230.5 [2]

Notes

I am grateful to Gwyn Williams (Jefferson Laboratory, Virginia, USA) who provided the electron binding energy data. The data are adapted from references 1-3. They are tabulated elsewhere on the WWW (reference 4) and in paper form (reference 5).

References

  1. J. A. Bearden and A. F. Burr, "Reevaluation of X-Ray Atomic Energy Levels," Rev. Mod. Phys., 1967, 39, 125.
  2. M. Cardona and L. Ley, Eds., Photoemission in Solids I: General Principles (Springer-Verlag, Berlin) with additional corrections, 1978.
  3. Gwyn Williams WWW table of values
  4. D.R. Lide, (Ed.) in Chemical Rubber Company handbook of chemistry and physics, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 81st edition, 2000.
  5. J. C. Fuggle and N. Mårtensson, "Core-Level Binding Energies in Metals," J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 1980, 21, 275.