โ–ธโ–ธ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง Ruthenium
  • ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ณ ้‡•
  • ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฑ Ruthenium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท Ruthénium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช Ruthenium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฑ ืจื•ืชื ื™ื•ื
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡น Rutenio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ต ใƒซใƒ†ใƒ‹ใ‚ฆใƒ 
  • ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡น Rutênio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡บ ะ ัƒั‚ะตะฝะธะน
  • ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Rutenio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ช Rutenium

Ruthenium: isotope data

Ruthenium isotopes are used in several scientific and medical applications. Ru-99 is used for NMR studies. Ru-96 is used for the production of the radioisotopes Ru-94 and Ru-95. Ru-98 has been used to study excitations in atomic nuclei. Ru-100 has been used in isomeric cross section studies. Ru-101 has been used in studies related to the structure and vibrations of nuclei. Ru-102 has been used as a target for the production of the radioisotope Te-116. Ru-104 is used for the production of the radioisotope Rh-105 which has been suggested for the treatment of bone pain.

Naturally occurring isotopes

This table shows information about naturally occuring isotopes, their atomic masses, their natural abundances, their nuclear spins, and their magnetic moments. Further data for radioisotopes (radioactive isotopes) of ruthenium are listed (including any which occur naturally) below.
Isotope Mass / Da Natural abundance (atom %) Nuclear spin (I) Magnetic moment (μ/μN)
96Ru 95.907599 (8) 5.54 (14) 0
98Ru 97.905287 (7) 1.87 (3) 0
99Ru 98.9059389 (23) 12.76 (14) 5/2 -0.6413
100Ru 99.9042192 (24) 12.60 (7) 0
101Ru 100.9055819 (24) 17.06 (2) 5/2 -0.7189
102Ru 101.9043485 (25) 31.55 (14) 0
104Ru 103.905424 (6) 18.62 (27) 0
Isotope abundances of ruthenium
Isotope abundances of ruthenium. In the above, the most intense ion is set to 100% since this corresponds best to the output from a mass spectrometer. This is not to be confused with the relative percentage isotope abundances which totals 100% for all the naturally occurring isotopes.

Radiosotope data

Further data for naturally occuring isotopes of ruthenium are listed above. This table gives information about some radiosotopes of ruthenium, their masses, their half-lives, their modes of decay, their nuclear spins, and their nuclear magnetic moments.
Isotope Mass / Da Half-life Mode of decay Nuclear spin Nuclear magnetic moment
95Ru 94.91042 1.64 h EC to 95Tc 5/2
97Ru 96.90756 2.89 d EC to 97Tc 5/2 -0.78
103Ru 102.906323 39.27 d β- to 103Rh 3/2 0.20
105Ru 104.907750 4.44 h β- to 105Rh 3/2 -0.3
106Ru 105.90733 1.020 y β- to 106Rh 0

References

  1. Naturally occurring isotope abundances: Commission on Atomic Weights and Isotopic Abundances report for the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry in Isotopic Compositions of the Elements 1989, Pure and Applied Chemistry, 1998, 70, 217. [Copyright 1998 IUPAC]
  2. For further information about radioisotopes see Jonghwa Chang's (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) Table of the Nuclides
  3. Masses, nuclear spins, and magnetic moments: I. Mills, T. Cvitas, K. Homann, N. Kallay, and K. Kuchitsu in Quantities, Units and Symbols in Physical Chemistry, Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, UK, 1988. [Copyright 1988 IUPAC]

NMR Properties of ruthenium

Common reference compound: K4[Ru(CN)6]/D2O.

Table of NMR-active nucleus propeties of ruthenium
  Isotope 1 Isotope 2 Isotope 3
Isotope 99Ru 101Ru
Natural abundance /% 12.7 17.0
Spin (I) 5/2 5/2
Frequency relative to 1H = 100 (MHz) 4.605151 5.161369
Receptivity, DP, relative to 1H = 1.00 0.000144 0.000271
Receptivity, DC, relative to 13C = 1.00 0.821 1.55
Magnetogyric ratio, γ (107 rad T‑1 s-1) -1.229 -1.377
Magnetic moment, μ (μN) -7.588 -0.8505
Nuclear quadrupole moment, Q/millibarn +79(4) +457(23)
Line width factor, 1056 l (m4) 0.0020 0.0067

References

  1. R.K. Harris in Encyclopedia of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, D.M. Granty and R.K. Harris, (eds.), vol. 5, John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, UK, 1996. I am grateful to Professor Robin Harris (University of Durham, UK) who provided much of the NMR data, which are copyright 1996 IUPAC, adapted from his contribution contained within this reference.
  2. J. Mason in Multinuclear NMR, Plenum Press, New York, USA, 1987. Where given, data for certain radioactive nuclei are from this reference.
  3. P. Pyykkö, Mol. Phys., 2008, 106, 1965-1974.
  4. P. Pyykkö, Mol. Phys., 2001, 99, 1617-1629.
  5. P. Pyykkö, Z. Naturforsch., 1992, 47a, 189. I am grateful to Professor Pekka Pyykkö (University of Helsinki, Finland) who provided the nuclear quadrupole moment data in this and the following two references.
  6. D.R. Lide, (ed.), CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 1999-2000 : A Ready-Reference Book of Chemical and Physical Data (CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 79th edition, 1998.
  7. P. Pyykkö, personal communication, 1998, 204, 2008, 2010.