Chlorine: reactions of elements

Reaction of chlorine with air

Although chlorine oxides are known, chlorine, Cl2 is not reactive towards with oxygen, O2, or nitrogen, N2.

Reaction of chlorine with water

Chlorine, Cl2, reacts with water to produce hypochlorite, OCl-. The position of the equilibrium depends very much upon the pH of the solution.

Cl2(g) + H2O(l) ⇌ OCl-(aq) + 2H+(aq) + Cl-(aq)

Reaction of chlorine with the halogens

Fluorine, F2, reacts with chlorine, Cl2, at 225°C to form the interhalogen species ClF. The trifluoride chlorine(III) fluoride is also formed and the reaction does not go to completion.

Cl2(g) + F2(g) → 2ClF(g)

Cl2(g) + 3F2(g) → 2ClF3(g)

Under more forcing conditions, excess fluorine reacts with chlorine, Cl2, at 350°C and 225 atmospheres pressure to form the interhalogen species ClF5.

Cl2(g) + 5F2(g) → 2ClF5(g)

Chlorine, Cl2, reacts with bromine, Br2, in the gas phase to form the unstable interhalogen species bromine(I) chloride, ClBr.

Cl2(g) + Br2(g) → 2ClBr(g)

Similarly, chlorine, Cl2, reacts with iodine, I2, at room temperature to form the interhalogen species iodine(I) chloride, ClI.

Cl2(g) + I2(g) → 2ICl(s)

Reaction of chlorine with acids

Reaction of chlorine with bases

Chlorine, Cl2, reacts with hot aqueous alkali to produce chlorate, ClO3-. Only one sixth of the total chlorine is converted in this reaction.

3Cl2(g) + 6OH-(aq) → ClO3-(aq) + 5Cl-(aq) + 3H2O

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