โ–ธโ–ธ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง Molybdenum
  • ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ณ ้‰ฌ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฑ Molybdeen
  • ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท Molybdène
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช MolybdŠn
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฑ ืžื•ืœื™ื‘ื“ืŸ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡น Molibdeno
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ต ใƒขใƒชใƒ–ใƒ‡ใƒณ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡น Molibdênio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡บ ะœะพะปะธะฑะดะตะฝ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Molibdeno
  • ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ช Molybden

Molybdenum: the essentials

Molybdenum atoms have 42 electrons and the shell structure is 2.8.18.13.1. The ground state electronic configuration of neutral molybdenum is [Kr].4d5.5s1 and the term symbol of molybdenum is 7S3.

Molybdenum: description  

Molybdenum is a silvery-white, hard, transition metal. Scheele discovered it in 1778. It was often confused with graphite and lead ore. Molybdenum is used in alloys, electrodes and catalysts. The World War 2 German artillery piece called "Big Bertha" contains molybdenum as an essential component of its steel.

molybdenum bar
Molybdenum rods.

Molybdenum: physical properties

More physical properties...

Molybdenum: heat properties

More thermochemical properties...

Molybdenum: atom sizes

More atomc size properties...

Molybdenum: electronegativities

More electronegativity properties...

Molybdenum: orbital properties

More orbital properties...

Molybdenum: abundances

More geological data...

Molybdenum: crystal structure

Mo crystal structure
The solid state structure of molybdenum is: bcc (body-centred cubic).

More crystallographic data...

Molybdenum: biological data

Molybdenum is a necessary element, apparently for all species. Only very small amounts are required. Molybdenum plays a role in nitrogen fixation, (a process by which the normally unreactive nitrogen gas is turned into other compounds) enzymes, and nitrate reduction enzymes.

More biological data...

Molybdenum: uses

Uses...

Molybdenum: reactions

Reactions of molybdenum as the element with air, water, halogens, acids, and bases where known.

View reactions of molybdenum...

Molybdenum: binary compounds

Binary compounds with halogens (known as halides), oxygen (known as oxides), hydrogen (known as hydrides), and other compounds of molybdenum where known.

View binary compounds...

Molybdenum: compound properties

Bond strengths; lattice energies of molybdenum halides, hydrides, oxides (where known); and reduction potentials where known.

View compound properties...

Molybdenum: history

Molybdenum was discovered by Carl William Scheele in 1781 at Sweden. Origin of name: from the Greek word "molybdos" meaning "lead".

More history...

Molybdenum: isotopes

Isotope abundances of molybdenum
Isotope abundances of molybdenum with the most intense signal set to 100%.

The Molybdenum isotope Mo-95 is used for the production of the medical radioisotope Ru-97. Mo-96 is used for the production of the radioisotopes Tc-96 and Tc-95m, both of which have a medical application. Most Mo isotopes are also used in nutrition studies in humans. Depleted Mo-95 has been suggested for use in UMo fuel elements for materials test (high flux) reactors.

More isotope and NMR data...

Molybdenum: isolation

Isolation: it is not normally necessary to make samples of molybdenum metal in the laboratory since it is readily available commercially. Industrially, its extraction is sometimes linked to copper production. The normal process is for the sulphide MoS2 to be "roasted" to form the oxide MoO3. This is often used directly in the steel industry.

Pure samples of the metal are available by first dissolving the oxide in ammonium hydroxide to make ammonium molybdate, (NH4)2[MO4], and thenreduction of the molybdate with hydrogen gas to form the metal.