โ–ธโ–ธ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง Manganese
  • ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ณ ้Œณ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฑ Mangaan
  • ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท Manganèse
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช Mangan
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฑ ืžื ื’ืŸ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡น Manganese
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ต ใƒžใƒณใ‚ฌใƒณ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡น Manganês
  • ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡บ ะœะฐั€ะณะฐะฝะตั†
  • ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Manganeso
  • ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ช Mangan

Manganese: the essentials

Manganese atoms have 25 electrons and the shell structure is 2.8.13.2. The ground state electronic configuration of neutral manganese is [Ar].3d5.4s2 and the term symbol of manganese is 6S5/2.

Manganese: description  

Manganese metal is gray-white, resembling iron, but is harder and very brittle. The metal is reactive chemically, and decomposes cold water slowly. Manganese is widely distributed throughout the animal kingdom. It is an important trace element and may be essential for utilisation of vitamin B. Manganese is present in quantity the floor of oceans. It is an important component of steel.

manganese
Image adapted with permission from Prof James Marshall's (U. North Texas, USA) Walking Tour of the elements CD.

Science and Ink cartoon for manganese
Cartoon by Nick D Kim ([Science and Ink], used by permission).

Manganese: physical properties

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Manganese: heat properties

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Manganese: atom sizes

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Manganese: electronegativities

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Manganese: orbital properties

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Manganese: abundances

More geological data...

Manganese: crystal structure

Mn crystal structure
The solid state structure of manganese is: bcc (body-centred cubic).

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Manganese: biological data

Manganese compounds are essential to life. They are essential for the action of some enzymes. Soil deficiencies lead to infertility in mammals and to bone malformation in growing chicks.

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Manganese: uses

Uses...

Manganese: reactions

Reactions of manganese as the element with air, water, halogens, acids, and bases where known.

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Manganese: binary compounds

Binary compounds with halogens (known as halides), oxygen (known as oxides), hydrogen (known as hydrides), and other compounds of manganese where known.

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Manganese: compound properties

Bond strengths; lattice energies of manganese halides, hydrides, oxides (where known); and reduction potentials where known.

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Manganese: history

Manganese was discovered by Johann Gahn in 1774 at Sweden. Origin of name: from the Latin word "magnes" meaning "magnet", or "magnesia nigri" meaning "black magnesia" (MnO2).

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Manganese: isotopes

Isotope abundances of manganese
Isotope abundances of manganese with the most intense signal set to 100%.

More isotope and NMR data...

Manganese: isolation

Isolation: it is not normally necessary to make manganese in the laboratory as it is available commercially. Nearly all manganese produced commercially is used in the steel industry as ferromanganese. This made by the reduction of iron oxide, Fe2O3, and managanese dioxide, MnO2, in appropriate proportions with carbon (as coke) in a blast furnace. Pure manganese is available through the electrolysis of manganese sulphate, MnSO4,