โ–ธโ–ธ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง Tungsten
  • ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ณ ้Žข
  • ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฑ Wolfraam
  • ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท Tungstène
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช Wolfram
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฑ ื˜ื•ื ื’ืกื˜ืŸ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡น Tungsteno (wolframio)
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ต ใ‚ฟใƒณใ‚ฐใ‚นใƒ†ใƒณ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡น Tungstênio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡บ ะ’ะพะปัŒั„ั€ะฐะผ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Wolframio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ช Volfram

Tungsten: the essentials

Tungsten atoms have 74 electrons and the shell structure is 2.8.18.32.12.2. The ground state electronic configuration of neutral tungsten is [Xe].4f14.5d4.6s2 and the term symbol of tungsten is 5D0.

Tungsten: description  

Pure tungsten is a steel-gray to tin-white metal. Tungsten has the highest melting point and lowest vapour pressure of all metals, and at temperatures over 1650°C has the highest tensile strength. The metal oxidises in air and must be protected at elevated temperatures. It has excellent corrosion resistance and is attacked only slightly by most mineral acids.

tungsten wire
Small and large samples of tungsten wire like this, as well as foil, sheet, wire straight cut lengths, insulated wire, and mesh (and tungsten alloys in wire form), can be purchased from Advent Research Materials via their web catalogue.

Tungsten: physical properties

More physical properties...

Tungsten: heat properties

More thermochemical properties...

Tungsten: atom sizes

More atomc size properties...

Tungsten: electronegativities

More electronegativity properties...

Tungsten: orbital properties

More orbital properties...

Tungsten: abundances

More geological data...

Tungsten: crystal structure

W crystal structure
The solid state structure of tungsten is: bcc (body-centred cubic).

More crystallographic data...

Tungsten: biological data

Tungsten has a limited biological role. A number of enzymes (oxidoreductases) employ tungsten in a way related to molybdenum, (using tungsten.pterin complex). The structure of a tungstoenzyme aldehyde ferredoxin oxidoreductase is known (Protein Data Bank code 1AOR).

More biological data...

Tungsten: uses

Uses...

Tungsten: reactions

Reactions of tungsten as the element with air, water, halogens, acids, and bases where known.

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Tungsten: binary compounds

Binary compounds with halogens (known as halides), oxygen (known as oxides), hydrogen (known as hydrides), and other compounds of tungsten where known.

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Tungsten: compound properties

Bond strengths; lattice energies of tungsten halides, hydrides, oxides (where known); and reduction potentials where known.

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Tungsten: history

Tungsten was discovered by Fausto and Juan Jose de Elhuyar in 1783 at Spain. Origin of name: from the Swedish words "tung sten" meaning "heavy stone" (the origin of the symbol W is "wolfram ", named after the tungsten mineral wolframite).

More history...

Tungsten: isotopes

Isotope abundances of tungsten
Isotope abundances of tungsten with the most intense signal set to 100%.

Tungsten isotopes are used in several applications. W-180 is used for the production of the therapeutic radioisotope W-181. W-186 is used for the production of W-188 which is used in so-called Tungsten-Rhenium generators. The W-188 daughter Re-188 is (milked( from there generators and used as a therapeutic radioisotope. W-184 has been used to study the elastic and inelastic scattering of heavy ions.

More isotope and NMR data...

Tungsten: isolation

Isolation: coming soon!