โ–ธโ–ธ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง Thorium
  • ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ณ ้‡ท
  • ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฑ Thorium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท Thorium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช Thorium
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฑ ืชื•ืจื™ื•ื
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡น Torio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ต ใƒˆใƒชใ‚ฆใƒ 
  • ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡น Tório
  • ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡บ ะขะพั€ะธะน
  • ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Torio
  • ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ช Torium

Thorium: the essentials

Thorium atoms have 90 electrons and the shell structure is 2.8.18.32.18.10.2. The ground state electronic configuration of neutral thorium is [Rn].6d2.7s2 and the term symbol of thorium is 3F2.

Thorium: description  

Thorium is a source of nuclear power. There is probably more untapped energy available for use from thorium in the minerals of the earth's crust than from combined uranium and fossil fuel sources. Much of the internal heat the earth has been attributed to thorium and uranium.

When pure, thorium is a silvery white metal which is air-stable and retains its lustre for several months. When contaminated with the oxide, thorium slowly tarnishes in air, becoming grey and finally black. Thorium oxide has a melting point of 3300°C, the highest of all oxides. Only a few elements, such as tungsten, and a few compounds, such as tantalum carbide, have higher melting points.

Thorium is slowly attacked by water, but does not dissolve readily in most common acids, except hydrochloric. Powdered thorium metal is often pyrophoric and should be carefully handled.When heated in air, thorium turnings ignite and burn brilliantly with a white light.

Thorium is named for Thor, the Scandinavian god of war. It is found in thorite and thorianite in New England (USA) and other sites.

thorium
Image adapted with permission from Prof James Marshall's (U. North Texas, USA) Walking Tour of the elements CD.

Thorium: physical properties

More physical properties...

Thorium: heat properties

More thermochemical properties...

Thorium: atom sizes

More atomc size properties...

Thorium: electronegativities

More electronegativity properties...

Thorium: orbital properties

More orbital properties...

Thorium: abundances

More geological data...

Thorium: crystal structure

Th crystal structure
The solid state structure of thorium is: bcc (body-centred cubic).

More crystallographic data...

Thorium: biological data

Thorium has no biological role.

More biological data...

Thorium: uses

Uses...

Thorium: reactions

Reactions of thorium as the element with air, water, halogens, acids, and bases where known.

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Thorium: binary compounds

Binary compounds with halogens (known as halides), oxygen (known as oxides), hydrogen (known as hydrides), and other compounds of thorium where known.

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Thorium: compound properties

Bond strengths; lattice energies of thorium halides, hydrides, oxides (where known); and reduction potentials where known.

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Thorium: history

Thorium was discovered by Jöns Berzelius in 1829 at Sweden. Origin of name: named after "Thor", the mythological Scandinavian god of war.

More history...

Thorium: isotopes

Isotope abundances of thorium
Isotope abundances of thorium with the most intense signal set to 100%.

More isotope and NMR data...

Thorium: isolation

Isolation: coming soon!