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Young's modulus

Young's modulus refers to longitudinal strain.

image showing Young's modulus: period 6f periodicity for the 6f chemical elements

Units

GPa

Notes

To convert GPa to Pa multiply by 109.

Data are largely from references 1, 2, and 3. Data for lanthanoids were taken from reference 4. Some other data is in reference 5.

Literature sources

  1. A.M. James and M.P. Lord in Macmillan's Chemical and Physical Data, Macmillan, London, UK, 1992.
  2. G.W.C. Kaye and T.H. Laby in Tables of physical and chemical constants, Longman, London, UK, 15th edition, 1993.
  3. G.V. Samsonov (Ed.) in Handbook of the physicochemical properties of the elements, IFI-Plenum, New York, USA, 1968.
  4. D.R. Lide, (Ed.) in Chemical Rubber Company handbook of chemistry and physics, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 79th edition, 1998.
  5. H. Ellis (Ed.) in Nuffield Advanced Science Book of Data, Longman, London, UK, 1972.