Californium: the essentials
Californium is a radioactive rare earth metal named after the state of California and the University of California (USA). Californium-252 is a strong neutron emitter and one microgram emits 170 million neutrons per minute, making it a biological hazard. It has a few specialised uses but only a few of its compounds are known.
Californium: historical information
Californium was produced by Ghiorso and others at the University of California, Berkeley, USA in 1950 who bombarded 242Cm with helium ions.
Californium around us Read more »
Californium has no biological role.
Californium is a synthetic element that is not present in the geosphere.
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|Human||(no data) ppb by weight||(no data) atoms relative to C = 1000000|
Physical properties Read more »
- Density of solid: 15100 kg m-3
- Molar volume: 16.50 cm3
- Thermal conductivity: 10 (estimate) W m‑1 K‑1
Heat properties Read more »
- Melting point: 1173 [900 °C (1652 °F)] K
- Boiling point: (no data) K
- Enthalpy of fusion: (no data) kJ mol-1
Crystal structure Read more »
The solid state structure of californium is: hcp (hexagonal close-packed).
Californium: orbital properties Read more »
Californium atoms have 98 electrons and the shell structure is 220.127.116.11.28.8.2. The ground state electronic configuration of neutral Californium is [Rn].5f10.7s2 and the term symbol of Californium is 5I8.
- Pauling electronegativity: 1.3 (Pauling units)
- First ionisation energy: 608 kJ mol‑1
- Second ionisation energy: (no data) kJ mol‑1
Isolation: coming soon!
Californium isotopes Read more »