โ–ธโ–ธ
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง Bismuth
  • ๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ณ ้‰
  • ๐Ÿ‡ณ๐Ÿ‡ฑ Bismut
  • ๐Ÿ‡ซ๐Ÿ‡ท Bismuth
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฉ๐Ÿ‡ช Bismut
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡ฑ ื‘ื™ืกืžื•ืช
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฎ๐Ÿ‡น Bismuto
  • ๐Ÿ‡ฏ๐Ÿ‡ต ใƒ“ใ‚นใƒžใ‚น
  • ๐Ÿ‡ต๐Ÿ‡น Bismuto
  • ๐Ÿ‡ท๐Ÿ‡บ ะ’ะธัะผัƒั‚
  • ๐Ÿ‡ช๐Ÿ‡ธ Bismuto
  • ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ช Vismut

Bismuth: the essentials

Bismuth atoms have 83 electrons and the shell structure is 2.8.18.32.18.5. The ground state electronic configuration of neutral bismuth is [Xe].4f14.5d10.6s2.6p3 and the term symbol of bismuth is 4S3/2.

Bismuth: description  

Bismuth is a white, crystalline, brittle metal with a pinkish tinge. Bismuth is the most diamagnetic of all metals, and the thermal conductivity is lower than any metal, except mercury. It has a high electrical resistance, and has the highest Hall effect of any metal (that is, the greatest increase in electrical resistance when placed in a magnetic field).

bismuth

Science and Ink cartoon for bismuth
Cartoon by Nick D Kim ([Science and Ink], used by permission).

Bismuth: physical properties

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Bismuth: heat properties

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Bismuth: atom sizes

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Bismuth: electronegativities

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Bismuth: orbital properties

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Bismuth: abundances

More geological data...

Bismuth: crystal structure

Bi crystal structure
The solid state structure of bismuth is: bcc (body-centred cubic).

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Bismuth: biological data

Bismuth has no biological role. However it has been used for some time as a medicine (tripotassium dicitratobismuthate) for treatment of stomach upsets. In combination with antibiotics it is now used for treatment of some stomach ulcers. It is also to be found in haemorrhoid creams such as Anusol cream and Hemocaneas as bismuth oxide and in Anusol ointment as bismuth subgallate.

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Bismuth: uses

Uses...

Bismuth: reactions

Reactions of bismuth as the element with air, water, halogens, acids, and bases where known.

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Bismuth: binary compounds

Binary compounds with halogens (known as halides), oxygen (known as oxides), hydrogen (known as hydrides), and other compounds of bismuth where known.

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Bismuth: compound properties

Bond strengths; lattice energies of bismuth halides, hydrides, oxides (where known); and reduction potentials where known.

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Bismuth: history

Bismuth was discovered by known since ancient times in unknown at not known. Origin of name: from the German word "bisemutum".

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Bismuth: isotopes

Isotope abundances of bismuth
Isotope abundances of bismuth with the most intense signal set to 100%.

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Bismuth: isolation

Isolation: it is not normally necessary to make bismuth in the laboratory as it is available commercially. Bismuth is found in nature largely as bismite (Bi2O3), bismuthinite (Bi2S3), and bismutite [(BiO)2CO3]. However it is generally made as a byproduct of copper, lead,tin, silver, gold, and zinc plants. The final step involves a reduction of the oxide by charcoal.