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  • ๐Ÿ‡ฌ๐Ÿ‡ง Radium
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  • ๐Ÿ‡ธ๐Ÿ‡ช Radium

Radium: the essentials

Radium atoms have 88 electrons and the shell structure is 2.8.18.32.18.8.2. The ground state electronic configuration of neutral radium is [Rn].7s2 and the term symbol of radium is 1S0.

Radium: description  

Pure metallic radium is brilliant white when freshly prepared, but blackens on exposure to air, probably due to formation of the nitride. It exhibits luminescence, as do its salts; it decomposes in water and is somewhat more volatile than barium. Radium imparts a carmine red colour to a flame.

Radium emits α, β, and γ rays and when mixed with beryllium produces neutrons. Inhalation, injection, or body exposure to radium can cause cancer and other body disorders. alkaline earth metal, white but tarnishes black upon exposure to air, luminesces, decomposes in water, emits radioactive radon gas, disintegrated radioactively until it reaches stable lead, radiological hazard, α, β, and γ emitter, exposure to radium can cause cancer and other body disorders. Radium is over a million times more radioactive than the same mass of uranium.

radium
Radium paint was used in the mid 1900s to paint the hands and numbers of some clocks and watches. The paint was composed of radium salts and a phosphor and glowed in the dark. Image adapted with permission from Prof James Marshall's (U. North Texas, USA) Walking Tour of the elements CD.

Radium: physical properties

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Radium: heat properties

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Radium: electronegativities

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Radium: orbital properties

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Radium: abundances

More geological data...

Radium: crystal structure

Ra crystal structure
The solid state structure of radium is: bcc (body-centred cubic).

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Radium: biological data

Radium has no biological role.

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Radium: uses

Uses...

Radium: reactions

Reactions of radium as the element with air, water, halogens, acids, and bases where known.

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Radium: binary compounds

Binary compounds with halogens (known as halides), oxygen (known as oxides), hydrogen (known as hydrides), and other compounds of radium where known.

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Radium: compound properties

Bond strengths; lattice energies of radium halides, hydrides, oxides (where known); and reduction potentials where known.

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Radium: history

Radium was discovered by Pierre and Marie Curie in 1898 at France. Origin of name: from the Latin word "radius" meaning "ray".

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Radium: isotopes

Isotope abundances of radium
Isotope abundances of radium with the most intense signal set to 100%.

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Radium: isolation

Isolation: all isotopes of radium are radioactive and there is only ever any need to make radium metal on very small scales for research purposes. Radium is extremely scarce but found in uranium ores such as pitchblende at slightly more than 1g in 10 tonnes of ore. It may be made on very small scale by the electrolysis of molten radium chloride, RaCl2. This was first done using a mercury cathode, which gave radium amalgam. The metal was obtained by distillation away from the amalgam.

cathode: Ra2+(l) + 2e- → Ra

anode: Cl-(l) → 1/2Cl2 (g) + e-